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Mobile Broadband Communications for Public Safety: The Road Ahead Through LTE Technology

Mobile Broadband Communications for Public Safety: The Road Ahead Through LTE Technology

Ramon Ferrús, Oriol Sallent

ISBN: 978-1-118-83124-3

Aug 2015

360 pages

Description

This book provides a timely and comprehensive overview of the introduction of LTE technology for PPDR communications. It describes the operational scenarios and emerging multimedia and data-centric applications in demand and discusses the main techno-economic drivers that are believed to be pivotal for an efficient and cost-effective delivery of mobile broadband PPDR communications. The capabilities and features of the LTE standard for improved support of mission-critical communications (e.g., proximity services, group communications) are covered in detail. Also, different network implementation options to deliver mobile broadband PPDR communications services over dedicated or commercial LTE-based networks are discussed, including the applicability of the Mobile Virtual Network Operator (MVNO) model and other hybrid models. Radio spectrum matters are also discussed in depth, outlining spectrum needs and providing an outlook into allocated and candidate spectrum bands for PPDR communications and suitable dynamic spectrum sharing solutions in PPDR communications. Explanations are accompanied by a vast collection of references that allow the more intrigued reader to gain further insight into the addressed topics.

Preface ix

List of Abbreviations xiii

1 Public Protection and Disaster Relief Communications 1

1.1 Background and Terminology 1

1.2 PPDR Functions and Organizations 3

1.3 Operational Framework and Communications Needs for PPDR 6

1.3.1 Operational Scenarios 7

1.3.2 Framework for PPDR Operations 9

1.3.3 Communications’ Reference Points in PPDR Operations 12

1.3.4 Communications Services Needed for PPDR Operations 16

1.4 Communications Systems for PPDR 19

1.4.1 General PPDR Requirements on Communications Systems 19

1.4.2 Technologies in Use for PPDR Communications 22

1.4.3 Current NB PMR Standards Used in PPDR 23

1.4.4 Main Limitations with Today’s PPDR Communications Systems 32

1.5 Regulatory and Standardization Framework 39

1.5.1 ITU Work on Emergency Communications 40

1.5.2 North and Latin America Regions 43

1.5.3 Asia and Pacific Region 44

1.5.4 Europe Region 45

References 47

2 Mobile Broadband Data Applications and Capacity Needs 49

2.1 Introduction 49

2.2 Data]Centric, Multimedia Applications for PPDR 51

2.2.1 Video Transmission 51

2.2.2 Geographic Information Systems 54

2.2.3 Location and Tracking 55

2.2.4 Electronic Conferencing and Coordination Tools for Incident Command 56

2.2.5 Remote Database Access and Information Transfer Applications 56

2.2.6 PPDR Personnel Monitoring and Biomedical Telemetry 57

2.2.7 Remote Emergency Medical Services 58

2.2.8 Sensors and Remotely Controlled Devices 58

2.2.9 Mobile Office 59

2.3 Characterization of Broadband Data Applications for PPDR 59

2.4 Assessment of the Data Capacity Needs in Various Operational Scenarios 66

2.4.1 Throughput Requirements of PPDR Applications 66

2.4.2 Day]to]Day Operations Scenarios 71

2.4.3 Large Emergency/Public Events 73

2.4.4 Disaster Scenarios 76

References 80

3 Future Mobile Broadband PPDR Communications Systems 81

3.1 Paradigm Change for the Delivery of PPDR Broadband Communications 81

3.2 Techno]economic Aspects Driving the Paradigm Change 83

3.2.1 Technology Dimension 84

3.2.2 Network Dimension 87

3.2.3 Spectrum Dimension 98

3.3 System View of Future Mobile Broadband PPDR Communications 101

3.3.1 LTE Dedicated Networks 103

3.3.2 LTE Commercial Networks 104

3.3.3 Legacy PMR/LMR Networks 104

3.3.4 Transportable Systems and Satellite Communications 105

3.3.5 IP]Based Interconnection Backbones 106

3.3.6 Applications and User Equipment 106

3.3.7 Spectrum 108

3.4 Current Initiatives 109

3.4.1 Deployment of a Nationwide Dedicated LTE Broadband Network in the United States 110

3.4.2 CEPT ECC Activities for a European]Wide Harmonization of Broadband PPDR 113

3.4.3 Hybrid Approaches Taking Off in Belgium and Some Other European Countries 114

3.4.4 LTE Emergency Services Network in the United Kingdom 118

3.4.5 TCCA 119

References 121

4 LTE Technology for PPDR Communications 125

4.1 Standardization Roadmap towards Mission]Critical LTE 125

4.2 LTE Fundamentals 129

4.2.1 Radio Interface 131

4.2.2 Service Model: PDN Connection and EPS Bearer Service 136

4.2.3 PCC Subsystem 141

4.2.4 Security 143

4.2.5 Roaming Support 149

4.2.6 Voice Services over LTE 150

4.3 Group Communications and PTT 152

4.3.1 Existing Initiatives and Solutions for PTT over LTE 153

4.3.2 3GPP Standardization Work 153

4.3.3 GCSE 155

4.3.4 MCPTT over LTE 158

4.3.5 OMA PCPS 161

4.4 Device]to]Device Communications 164

4.4.1 3GPP Standardization Work 166

4.4.2 ProSe Capabilities 167

4.4.3 ProSe Functional Architecture 172

4.5 Prioritization and QoS Control for PPDR 174

4.5.1 Access Priority 176

4.5.2 Admission Priority 179

4.5.3 Data Plane QoS Configuration 180

4.5.4 MPS 181

4.6 Isolated E]UTRAN Operation 182

4.7 High]Power UE 184

4.8 RAN Sharing Enhancements 185

References 189

5 LTE Networks for PPDR Communications 193

5.1 Introduction 193

5.1.1 Separation of Service and Network Layers in PPDR Communications Delivery 194

5.1.2 Design of a ‘Public Safety Grade’ Network 196

5.2 Delivery Options for Mobile Broadband PPDR Networks and Services 196

5.3 Dedicated Networks 201

5.3.1 Cost]Efficient Network Footprints 202

5.3.2 Expanding the User Base beyond PPDR Responders 204

5.4 Commercial Networks 208

5.4.1 Organizational and Contractual Aspects 211

5.4.2 Commercial Networks’ Readiness to Provide Mission]Critical PPDR Services 212

5.4.3 Current Support of Priority Services over Commercial Networks 216

5.5 Hybrid Solutions 220

5.5.1 National Roaming for PPDR Users 221

5.5.2 Deployment of an MVNO for PPDR 222

5.5.3 RAN Sharing with MNOs 227

5.5.4 Network Sharing of Critical and Professional Networks 231

5.6 Network Architecture Design and Implementation Aspects 232

5.6.1 Reference Model for a Critical Communications System 233

5.6.2 Interconnection to Commercial Networks 235

5.6.3 Interconnection to Legacy PMR Networks 240

5.6.4 Interconnection of Deployable Systems 241

5.6.5 Satellite Backhauling and Direct Access 243

5.6.6 Interconnection IP]Based Backbones 247

5.6.7 Network Architecture for an MVNO]Based Solution 250

References 252

6 Radio Spectrum for PPDR Communications 257

6.1 Spectrum Management: Regulatory Framework and Models 257

6.1.1 Global]Level Regulatory Framework 258

6.1.2 Regional]Level Regulatory Framework 259

6.1.3 National]Level Regulatory Framework 262

6.1.4 Spectrum Management Models 264

6.2 Internationally Harmonized Frequency Ranges for PPDR Communications 266

6.3 Spectrum Needs for Mobile Broadband PPDR Communications 270

6.3.1 Spectrum Components 270

6.3.2 Methodologies for the Computation of Spectrum Needs 271

6.3.3 Spectrum Estimates 275

6.4 Existing Spectrum Assignments for PPDR and Candidate Bands for Mobile Broadband 275

6.4.1 European Region 277

6.4.2 North America 282

6.4.3 Asia]Pacific and Latin America 283

6.5 Spectrum Sharing for PPDR Communications 285

6.5.1 Spectrum Sharing Models 287

6.5.2 Shared Use of Spectrum Based on LSA 288

6.5.3 Shared Use of Spectrum Based on Secondary Access to TVWS 299

References 311

Index 317