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Mobile and Wireless Networks

Mobile and Wireless Networks

Khaldoun Al Agha, Guy Pujolle, Tara Ali Yahiya

ISBN: 978-1-119-00754-8

Sep 2016

352 pages

Description

This book presents the state of the art in the field of mobile and wireless networks, and anticipates the arrival of new standards and architectures. It focuses on wireless networks, starting with small personal area networks and progressing onto the very large cells of wireless regional area networks, via local area networks dominated by WiFi technology, and finally metropolitan networks. After a description of the existing 2G and 3G standards, with LTE being the latest release, LTE-A is addressed, which is the first 4G release, and a first indication of 5G is provided as seen through the standardizing bodies. 4G technology is described in detail along with the different LTE extensions related to the massive arrival of femtocells, the increase to a 1 Gbps capacity, and relay techniques. 5G is also discussed in order to show what can be expected in the near future.

The Internet of Things is explained in a specific chapter due to its omnipresence in the literature, ad hoc and mesh networks form another important chapter as they have made a comeback after a long period of near hibernation, and the final chapter discusses a particularly recent topic: Mobile-Edge Computing (MEC) servers.

Preface xiii

List of Acronyms  xvii

Chapter 1. Introduction to Mobile and Networks  1

1.1. Mobile and wireless generation networks 2

1.1.1. First generation mobile technology: 1G 2

1.1.2. Second generation mobile technology: 2G 3

1.1.3. Third generation mobile technology: 3G 4

1.1.4. Fourth generation mobile technology: 4G  5

1.1.5. Fifth generation mobile technology: 5G 7

1.2. IEEE technologies  7

1.2.1. IEEE 802.15: WPAN  8

1.2.2. IEEE 802.11: WLAN  8

1.2.3. IEEE 802.16: WMAN  9

1.2.4. IEEE 802.21: MIHS 10

1.2.5. IEEE 802.22: WRAN  10

1.3. Conclusion 11

1.4. Bibliography  11

1.4.1. Standards 11

1.4.2. Selected bibliography  12

1.4.3. Websites  13

Chapter 2. Mobile Networks 15

2.1. Cellular network 16

2.1.1. Radio interface  17

2.1.2. Cell design 19

2.1.3. Traffic engineering  20

2.2. Principles of cellular network functionalities 21

2.3. 1G networks  23

2.4. 2G networks  23

2.5. 3G networks  25

2.6. 4G networks  27

2.7. 5G networks  29

2.8. Bibliography 30

Chapter 3. Long-Term Evolution  35

3.1. Relevant features of LTE 36

3.2. Network architecture and protocols 39

3.2.1. Architecture reference model  40

3.2.2. Functional description of a LTE network 41

3.2.3. System architecture evolution  44

3.2.4. Reference points 46

3.3. Control and user planes  48

3.3.1. User plane 48

3.3.2. GPRS tunneling protocol  50

3.3.3. Control plane 52

3.4. Multimedia broadcast and multicast service  53

3.5. Stream Control Transmission Protocol 54

3.6. Network discovery and selection  55

3.7. Radio resource management 56

3.8. Authentication and authorization  58

3.8.1. User authentication, key agreement and key generation  59

3.8.2. Signaling and user-plane security 61

3.9. Fundamentals of the MAC layer in LTE  61

3.9.1. Traffic classes and quality of service 61

3.9.2. Mobility  62

3.9.3. Resource scheduling algorithms  63

3.10. Fundamentals of the LTE physical layer 64

3.10.1. Slot and frame structure in LTE OFDMA  64

3.10.2. Reference signals  68

3.11. Conclusion69

3.12. Bibliography 70

3.12.1. Standards 70

3.12.2. Selected bibliography  70

Chapter 4. Long-Term Evolution Advanced  73

4.1. HetNet in LTE Advanced  75

4.2. Small cell concepts  77

4.2.1. Picocell  77

4.2.2. Femtocells 78

4.2.3. Relays 78

4.3. Femtocell and macrocell integration architecture  79

4.4. Picocell and macrocell integration architecture 80

4.5. Interference mitigation in heterogeneous networks 81

4.5.1. Interference mitigation in the context of two-tier macrofemtocells  82

4.5.2. Frequency spectral assignment  82

4.6. Interference mitigation in the context of two-tier macropicocells  83

4.7. Coordinated multi-point transmission/reception 84

4.8. Carrier aggregation  85

4.9. LTE Advanced evolution toward 5G 86

4.10. Bibliography 87

4.10.1. Standards  87

4.10.2. Selected bibliography 87

4.10.3. Websites 88

Chapter 5. 5G 89

5.1. From LTE Advanced to 5G: the big transition  90

5.1.1. D2D communication  91

5.1.2. Green activities saving energy 92

5.1.3. LTE–WiFi integration for traffic offloading 92

5.1.4. Vehicular communication 93

5.2. Some characteristics envisioned for 5G  94

5.2.1. Massive capacity support  94

5.2.2. Ubiquitous communication support  94

5.2.3. Improvement in radio characteristics 94

5.3. 5G frequencies  95

5.4. High and low platforms 96

5.5. Cloud-RAN  98

5.6. Bibliography  101

5.6.1. Standard  101

5.6.2. Selected bibliography  101

5.6.3. Website  101

Chapter 6. Small Cells 103

6.1. Femtocell technology 105

6.2. LTE femtocell architecture  108

6.2.1. Home eNB or FAP  108

6.2.2. HeNB gateway or FAP-GW 109

6.2.3. HeNB management system or ACS  109

6.2.4. Security gateway 110

6.3. LTE femtocell deployment scenarios  110

6.4. Femtocell access control strategy  112

6.4.1. Closed subscriber group 112

6.4.2. Femtocell access control modes  113

6.4.3. Physical cell identity 113

6.5. LTE femtocell challenges and technical issues  114

6.5.1. Interference  114

6.5.2. Spectrum allocation  115

6.5.3. Access mode impact 117

6.6. Security and privacy challenges 117

6.7. Synchronization  120

6.8. Mobility 121

6.9. Passpoint  123

6.10. The backhaul network  126

6.11. Software radio and cognitive radio  128

6.12. Custom cells  129

6.13. Conclusion 130

6.14. Bibliography 131

6.14.1. Standards 131

6.14.2. Selected bibliography  131

6.14.3. Websites 133

Chapter 7. WPAN and WiGig 135

7.1. Wireless Personal Area Network  135

7.2. IEEE 802.15  136

7.3. Bluetooth  138

7.4. UWB 142

7.5. WiGig  147

7.6. WirelesssHD  150

7.7. Conclusion 151

7.8. Bibliography  151

Chapter 8. WLAN and WiFi 153

8.1. IEEE 802.11  154

8.2. WiFi architecture 156

8.2.1. Physical layer 156

8.2.2. Data link layer  157

8.2.3. Access techniques  158

8.2.4. The CSMA/CA protocol  159

8.2.5. Handovers 162

8.2.6. Security  163

8.2.7. Wired Equivalent Privacy 164

8.2.8. WPA and IEEE 802.11i 167

8.3. Security and authentication 168

8.3.1. Scalability and flexibility  168

8.3.2. IEEE 802.11i 170

8.3.3. Trading security policy 170

8.4. Saving energy 172

8.5. IEEE 802.11a, b and g  174

8.5.1. IEEE 802.11b 175

8.5.2. IEEE 802.11a 176

8.5.3. IEEE 802.11n 176

8.5.4. IEEE 802.11ac  179

8.5.5. IEEE 802.11ad  182

8.5.6. IEEE 802.11af  183

8.5.7. IEEE 802.11ah  185

8.6. Conclusion 187

8.7. Bibliography  188

Chapter 9. WMAN and WiMAX 191

9.1. Background on IEEE 802.16e 192

9.1.1. The medium access control layer 192

9.1.2. Channel access mechanism 193

9.1.3. Quality of service  194

9.1.4. Mobility support 195

9.2. The physical layer  195

9.2.1. Subchannelization in mobile WiMAX: OFDMA  195

9.2.2. Slot and frame structure in OFDMA-based mobile WiMAX 196

9.2.3. OFDMA slot structure in AMC permutation mode  198

9.3. An example of WiMAX and WiFi integration  200

9.3.1. QoS management 202

9.3.2. Qos support and classes 202

9.4. Mechanisms of channel access 203

9.4.1. WiFi access methods 204

9.4.2. Mobile WiMAX access method  205

9.4.3. Handover support 206

9.5. IEEE 802.16m or mesh for WiMAX  206

9.6. IEEE 802.16h or cognitive radio for WiMAX  207

9.6.1. Uncoordinated coexistence mechanism  208

9.6.2. Coordinated coexistence mechanism 209

9.7. Bibliography  210

9.7.1. Standards  210

9.7.2. Selected bibliography  210

Chapter 10. WRAN and Interconnection 213

10.1. IEEE 802.22  213

10.2. Interconnection between IEEE standards 216

10.2.1. IEEE 802.21 framework  217

10.2.2. IEEE 802.21 core architecture 218

10.3. Bibliography 220

10.3.1. Standards 220

10.3.2. Selected bibliography  220

Chapter 11. Internet of Things 223

11.1. Sensor networks 224

11.2. RFID  226

11.2.1. Using RFID  228

11.2.2. EPC global  229

11.2.3. RFID security  231

11.2.4. Mifare 231

11.3. Near-field communication 232

11.3.1. Mobile key  233

11.3.2. NFC payment  234

11.3.3. The Internet of Things in a medical environment 236

11.4. The Internet of Things in the home  237

11.5. Fog networking  238

11.6. Connection of things 240

11.6.1. Specific proprietary solution: SIGFOX example  241

11.6.2. LoRa 242

11.7. Conclusion  245

11.8. Bibliography 245

Chapter 12. Ad Hoc and Mesh Networks  247

12.1. Ad hoc networks 248

12.2. Routing  250

12.2.1. Ad hoc in the link layer  253

12.2.2. Ad hoc mode in WiFi 253

12.2.3. Bluetooth link layer  256

12.3. Ad hoc routing protocols  258

12.3.1. Reactive protocols 261

12.3.2. Ad hoc on-demand distance vector 261

12.3.3. Dynamic source routing  262

12.4. Proactive protocols 263

12.4.1. Optimized link state routing protocol  263

12.4.2. Topology dissemination based on reverse-path forwarding  264

12.5. Quality of service in ad hoc networks  265

12.6. Models for QoS in MANET  266

12.7. Mesh networks  270

12.8. VANET networks  273

12.9. Green PI: wearable Device2Device networks 274

12.9.1. Observation of traffic 276

12.9.2. Embedded Internet and 5G  277

12.9.3. Green PI: wearable and embedded Internet  278

12.9.4. Distributed TCP/IP 279

12.9.5. Wearable YOI  280

12.10. Bibligraphy 281

Chapter 13. Mobile-Edge Computing  283

13.1. Network virtualization 283

13.2. Network virtualization technology  285

13.2.1. Xen  286

13.2.2. OpenFlow  288

13.3. Using network virtualization 292

13.3.1. Isolation 293

13.3.2. Extensive network virtualization 294

13.3.3. The Cloud 296

13.4. Mobile-edge computing 298

13.4.1. Use case 1: active device location tracking 299

13.4.2. Use case 2: augmented reality content delivery  300

13.4.3. Use case 3: video analytics  301

13.4.4. Use case 4: RAN-aware content optimization 301

13.4.5. Use case 5: distributed content and DNS caching 302

13.4.6. Use case 6: application-aware performance optimization  302

13.4.7. MEC server placement 303

13.5. Conclusion 305

13.6. Bibliography 305

Conclusion 307

Index 309