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Modern Physics, 4th Edition

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$120.95

Modern Physics, 4th Edition

Kenneth S. Krane

ISBN: 978-1-119-49555-0 June 2019 592 Pages

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Description

One of the field’s most respected introductory texts, Modern Physics provides a deep exploration of fundamental theory and experimentation. Appropriate for second-year undergraduate science and engineering students, this esteemed text presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts and methods that form the basis of modern physics, including examinations of relativity, quantum physics, statistical physics, nuclear physics, high energy physics, astrophysics, and cosmology. A balanced pedagogical approach examines major concepts first from a historical perspective, then through a modern lens using relevant experimental evidence and discussion of recent developments in the field. The emphasis on the interrelationship of principles and methods provides continuity, creating an accessible “storyline” for students to follow.

Extensive pedagogical tools aid in comprehension, encouraging students to think critically and strengthen their ability to apply conceptual knowledge to practical applications. Numerous exercises and worked examples reinforce fundamental principles.

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Preface v

1. Some Deficiencies of Classical Physics 1

1.1 Review of Classical Physics 3

1.2 Deficiencies in Classical Concepts of Space and Time 11

1.3 Deficiencies in the Classical Theory of Particle Statistics 13

1.4 Theory, Experiment, Law 21

Questions 22

Problems 23

2. The Special Theory of Relativity 25

2.1 Classical Relativity 26

2.2 The Michelson–Morley Experiment 29

2.3 Einstein’s Postulates 31

2.4 Consequences of Einstein’s Postulates 32

2.5 The Lorentz Transformation 41

2.6 The Twin Paradox 46

2.7 Relativistic Dynamics 48

2.8 Conservation Laws in Relativistic Decays and Collisions 54

2.9 Experimental Tests of Special Relativity 58

Questions 65

Problems 66

3. The Particle-Like Properties of Electromagnetic Radiation 71

3.1 Review of Electromagnetic Waves 72

3.2 The Photoelectric Effect 77

3.3 Thermal Radiation 83

3.4 The Compton Effect 90

3.5 Other Photon Processes 93

3.6 Particles or Waves 96

Questions 99

Problems 100

4. The Wavelike Properties of Particles 105

4.1 De Broglie’s Hypothesis 106

4.2 Experimental Evidence for De Broglie Waves 108

4.3 Uncertainty Relationships for Classical Waves 115

4.4 Heisenberg Uncertainty Relationships 118

4.5 Wave Packets 124

4.6 The Motion of a Wave Packet 128

4.7 Probability and Randomness 131

Questions 133

Problems 134

5. The Schrödinger Equation 139

5.1 Behavior of a Wave at a Boundary 140

5.2 Confining a Particle 144

5.3 The Schrödinger Equation 146

5.4 Applications of the Schrödinger Equation 150

5.5 The Simple Harmonic Oscillator 162

5.6 Steps and Barriers 165

Questions 173

Problems 174

6. The Rutherford-Bohr Model of the Atom 177

6.1 Basic Properties of Atoms 178

6.2 Scattering Experiments and the Thomson Model 179

6.3 The Rutherford Nuclear Atom 182

6.4 Line Spectra 188

6.5 The Bohr Model 191

6.6 The Franck-Hertz Experiment 197

6.7 The Correspondence Principle 199

6.8 Deficiencies of the Bohr Model 201

Questions 203

Problems 203

7. The Hydrogen Atom in Wave Mechanics 207

7.1 A One-Dimensional Atom 208

7.2 Angular Momentum in the Hydrogen Atom 210

7.3 The Hydrogen Atom Wave Functions 213

7.4 Radial Probability Densities 218

7.5 Angular Probability Densities 220

7.6 Intrinsic Spin 222

7.7 Energy Levels and Spectroscopic Notation 227

7.8 The Zeeman Effect 228

7.9 Fine Structure 230

Questions 232

Problems 233

8. Many-Electron Atoms 237

8.1 The Pauli Exclusion Principle 238

8.2 Electronic States in Many-Electron Atoms 240

8.3 Outer Electrons: Screening and Optical Transitions 244

8.4 Properties of the Elements 248

8.5 Inner Electrons: Absorption Edges and X Rays 253

8.6 Addition of Angular Momenta 257

8.7 Lasers 261

Questions 265

Problems 266

9. Molecular Structure 269

9.1 The Hydrogen Molecule 270

9.2 Covalent Bonding in Molecules 274

9.3 Ionic Bonding 282

9.4 Molecular Vibrations 286

9.5 Molecular Rotations 290

9.6 Molecular Spectra 294

Questions 298

Problems 299

10. Statistical Physics 303

10.1 Statistical Analysis 304

10.2 Classical and Quantum Statistics 306

10.3 The Density of States 310

10.4 The Maxwell–Boltzmann Distribution 315

10.5 Quantum Statistics 321

10.6 Applications of Bose–Einstein Statistics 324

10.7 Applications of Fermi–Dirac Statistics 330

Questions 336

Problems 337

11. Solid-State Physics 341

11.1 Crystal Structures 342

11.2 The Heat Capacity of Solids 350

11.3 Electrons in Metals 354

11.4 Band Theory of Solids 358

11.5 Superconductivity 364

11.6 Intrinsic and Impurity Semiconductors 369

11.7 Semiconductor Devices 372

11.8 Magnetic Materials 376

Questions 383

Problems 384

12. Nuclear Structure and Radioactivity 389

12.1 Nuclear Constituents 390

12.2 Nuclear Sizes and Shapes 392

12.3 Nuclear Masses and Binding Energies 394

12.4 The Nuclear Force 399

12.5 Quantum States in Nuclei 401

12.6 Radioactive Decay 403

12.7 Alpha Decay 407

12.8 Beta Decay 410

12.9 Gamma Decay and Nuclear Excited States 414

12.10 Natural Radioactivity 418

Questions 421

Problems 423

13. Nuclear Reactions and Applications 427

13.1 Types of Nuclear Reactions 428

13.2 Radioisotope Production in Nuclear Reactions 432

13.3 Low-Energy Reaction Kinematics 434

13.4 Fission 437

13.5 Fusion 443

13.6 Nucleosynthesis 450

13.7 Applications of Nuclear Physics 453

Questions 459

Problems 459

14. Elementary Particles 463

14.1 The Four Basic Forces 464

14.2 Classifying Particles 466

14.3 Conservation Laws 471

14.4 Particle Interactions and Decays 475

14.5 Energy and Momentum in Particle Decays 481

14.6 Energy and Momentum in Particle Reactions 483

14.7 The Quark Structure of Mesons and Baryons 487

14.8 The Standard Model 494

Questions 499

Problems 499

15. Cosmology: The Origin and Fate of the Universe 503

15.1 The Expansion of the Universe 504

15.2 The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation 508

15.3 Dark Matter 510

15.4 The General Theory of Relativity 512

15.5 Tests of General Relativity 519

15.6 Stellar Evolution and Black Holes 523

15.7 Cosmology and General Relativity 528

15.8 The Big Bang Cosmology 530

15.9 The Formation of Nuclei and Atoms 533

15.10 Experimental Cosmology 536

Questions 541

Problems 542

Appendix A: Constants and Conversion Factors 545

Appendix B: Complex Numbers 547

Appendix C: Periodic Table of the Elements 549

Appendix D: Table of Atomic Masses 551

Appendix E: Some Milestones in the History of Modern Physics 561

Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems 565

Index 569

Index to Tables 577

New to this Edition:

  • Experimental results added to reflect recent discoveries in gravitational waves, special and general relativity, the Higgs boson, and more
  • Updated coverage of neutrino mass, cosmic microwave background studies, dark matter and dark energy, and other relevant topics  
  • Additional in-class conceptual problems are augmented by web-based resources
  • New and revised examples, exercises, and end-of-chapter problems provide fresh practice and streamlined problem statements

Wiley Advantage:

  • Demonstrates theoretical concepts through current experimental results, with coverage of the latest research
  • Encourages active student participation through engaging topical discussions and questions
  • Provides numerous examples and a variety of problem types to encourage independent study
  • Presents clearly defined, reasonably paced learning objectives in an accessible, student-friendly style