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Modernisation, Mechanisation and Industrialisation of Concrete Structures

Modernisation, Mechanisation and Industrialisation of Concrete Structures

Kim S. Elliott (Editor), Zuhairi Abd. Hamid (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-87651-0

Feb 2017

504 pages

$96.99

Description

Modernisation, Mechanisation and Industrialisation of Concrete Structures discusses the manufacture of high quality prefabricated concrete construction components, and how that can be achieved through the application of developments in concrete technology, information modelling and best practice in design and manufacturing techniques.

About the Editors xi

Notes on Contributors xiii

Preface xvii

Part 1 Modernisation of Precast Concrete Structures 1

1 Historical and Chronological Development of Precast Concrete Structures 3
Kim S. Elliott

1.1 The five periods of development and optimisation 3

1.2 Developing years and the standardisation period 26

1.3 Optimisation and the lightweight period 34

1.3.1 Minimising beam and slab depths and structural zones 34

1.3.2 Orientation rule 38

1.3.3 Composite and continuous floor slabs 38

1.3.4 Composite and continuous internal beams 43

1.4 The thermal mass period 46

1.4.1 Background to fabric energy storage in precast framed and wall structures 46

1.4.2 Admittance and cooling capacity 48

1.4.3 Thermal resistance and U-values for precast ground and suspended floors 51

1.4.4 Conclusion to FES, cooling and thermal transmission 58

References 59

2 Industrial Building Systems (IBS) Project Implementation 61
Kim S. Elliott

2.1 Introduction 61

2.1.1 Definition of IBS 63

2.1.2 Advantages of IBS 64

2.1.3 Sustainability of IBS 67

2.1.4 Drawbacks of IBS 68

2.2 Routes to IBS procurement 69

2.2.1 Definitions 69

2.2.2 Preliminaries 70

2.2.3 Project design stages 71

2.2.4 Design and detailing practice 79

2.2.5 Structural design calculations and project drawings 80

2.2.6 Component schedules and the engineer’s instructions to factory and site 87

2.3 Precast concrete IBS solution to seven-storey skeletal frame 89

2.4 Manufacture of precast concrete components and ancillaries 93

2.4.1 Requirements and potential for automation 93

2.4.2 Floor slabs by slip-forming and extrusion techniques 93

2.4.3 Comparisons of slip-forming and extrusion techniques, and r.c. slabs 102

2.4.4 Hydraulic extruder 102

2.4.5 Reinforced hollow core slabs 103

2.4.6 Automated embedment machines for mesh and fabrics in double-tee slabs 106

2.4.7 Optimised automation 109

2.4.8 Table top wall panels 110

2.4.9 Production of precast concrete wall panels using vertical circulation system 115

2.4.10 Control of compaction of concrete 118

2.4.11 Automation of rebar bending and wire-welded cages 118

2.5 Minimum project sizes and component efficiency for IBS 120

2.6 Design implications in construction matters 120

2.7 Conclusions 122

References 124

3 Best Practice and Lessons Learned in IBS Design, Detailing and Construction 125
Kim S. Elliott

3.1 Increasing off-site fabrication 125

3.2 Standardisation 133

3.3 Self-compacting concrete for precast components 137

3.4 Recycled precast concrete 142

3.5 Building services 144

3.6 Conclusions 147

References 147

4 Research and Development Towards the Optimisation of Precast Concrete Structures 149
Kim S. Elliott and Zuhairi Abd. Hamid

4.1 The research effort on precast concrete framed structures 149

4.1.1 Main themes of innovation, optimisation and implementation 149

4.1.2 Structural frame action and the role of connections 151

4.1.3 Advancement and optimisation of precast elements 156

4.1.4 Shear reduction of hcu on flexible supports 157

4.1.5 Continuity of bending moments at interior supports 159

4.1.6 Horizontal diaphragm action in hollow core floors without structural toppings 160

4.2 Precast frame connections 162

4.2.1 Background to the recent improvements in frame behaviour 162

4.2.2 Moment-rotation of beam to column connections 162

4.2.3 Research and development of precast beam-to-column connections 167

4.2.4 Column effective length factors in semi-rigid frames 170

4.3 Studies on structural integrity of precast frames and connections 170

4.3.1 Derivation of catenary tie forces 170

References 173

Part 2 Mechanisation and Automation of the Production of Concrete Elements 177

5 Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Software for the Design and Detailing of Precast Structures 179
Thomas Leopoldseder and Susanne Schachinger

5.1 Building information modelling (BIM) 179

5.1.1 Introduction 179

5.1.2 History and ideas 180

5.1.3 Types of BIM 183

5.1.4 BIM around the world 185

5.1.5 BIM and precast structures 187

5.2 Technologies 188

5.2.1 Industry foundation classes (IFC) 188

5.2.2 IFC data file formats and data exchange technologies 192

5.2.3 BIM model software 195

5.3 BIM in precast construction 198

5.3.1 Project pricing for precast structures based on 3D models 198

5.3.2 Technical engineering 198

5.3.3 Production data and status management 202

5.3.4 Logistics, mounting, and quality management 206

5.4 Summary 207

References 207

6 Mechanisation and Automation in Concrete Production 210
Robert Neubauer

6.1 Development of industrialization and automation in the concrete prefabrication industry 210

6.1.1 Stationary flexible forms, tables and formwork in a prefabrication plant 211

6.1.2 Long-bed production 213

6.1.3 Pallet circulation plant 217

6.1.4 CAD-CAM: the path to automation 221

6.2 CAD-CAM BIM from Industry 2.0 to 4.0 224

6.2.1 Production of non-variable parts versus production in lot size one 224

6.2.2 IBS – suitable prefabricated products for mechanization and automation 227

6.2.3 Just-in-time planning and production using ERP systems 234

6.2.4 MES systems for mechanization and automation 238

6.3 Automation methods 242

6.3.1 From simple to the highly sophisticated 243

6.3.2 Automation methods 243

6.4 Integrated and automated prefabricated production process 286

6.4.1 Structures 287

6.4.2 ERP, CAD, MES, PROD machines, HMI 289

6.4.3 HMI – integrating staff into the process 289

6.4.4 Smart factory, industry 4.0 – integration into BIM 291

6.4.5 QM included 293

6.5 Limits of automation 298

6.5.1 Labour cost versus automation 298

6.5.2 Costs, necessary skills and ROI 298

6.6 Summary and outlook 300

Part 3 Industrialisation of Concrete Structures 301

7 Lean Construction – Industrialisation of On-site Production Processes 303
Gerhard Girmscheid

7.1 Work process planning (WPP) 304

7.1.1 Construction production planning process – introduction 304

7.1.2 Construction production process – principles and sequence 310

7.1.3 Systematic basic production process planning – steps 311

7.1.4 Continuous construction process management 313

7.2 Construction production process planning procedure 314

7.3 Work process planning (WPP) – work execution estimation 322

7.4 Work process planning (WPP) – planning the processes and construction methods 329

7.5 Planning the execution process 332

7.6 Procedure for selecting construction methods and processes 336

7.6.1 Objectives when comparing construction methods 336

7.6.2 Methodological approach to comparing construction methods 338

7.7 Conclusions to Chapter 7 343

References 344

8 Lean Construction – Industrialisation of On-site Production Processes 346
Gerhard Girmscheid

8.1 Introduction – top-down / bottom-up work planning scheduling and resource planning 347

8.2 Scheduling and resource planning 348

8.3 Site Logistics 352

8.3.1 Logistics planning 352

8.3.2 Transport logistics 354

8.3.3 Delivery, storage and turnaround logistics 355

8.3.4 Planning storage areas – storage space management 356

8.3.5 Disposal logistics 357

8.4 Weekly work plans 357

8.4.1 Lean construction – weekly work program 357

8.4.2 Equipment and material call-up 384

8.4.3 Organizing the construction workflow, construction methods, and health and safety 390

8.5 Construction site controlling process 391

8.5.1 Performance specifications 391

8.5.2 Controlling weekly work performance 393

8.6 CIP – the continuous improvement process 398

8.7 Conclusions 401

References 403

9 New Cooperative Business Model – Industrialization of Off-Site Production 404
Julia Selberherr

9.1 Introduction 405

9.2 Objectives of the new business model 406

9.3 Modelling 408

9.3.1 Formal structuring 408

9.3.2 Contextual configuration of the outside view: development of the new service offer 409

9.3.3 Contextual configuration of the inside view: Realization of the value creation process 409

9.3.4 Overview 420

9.4 Conclusion 420

References 421

10 Retrospective View and Future Initiatives in Industrialised Building System s (IBS) and Modernisation, Mechanisation and Industrialisation (MMI) 424
Zuhairi Abd. Hamid, Foo Chee Hung, and Ahmad Hazim Abdul Rahim

10.1 Industrialisation of the construction industry 424

10.2 Overview on global housing prefabrication 426

10.3 Housing prefabrication in Malaysia – the industrialisation building system (IBS) 427

10.3.1 Chronology of IBS development in Malaysia 429

10.3.2 IBS roadmap 433

10.3.3 IBS adoption level in Malaysia 435

10.4 Social acceptability of IBS in relation to housing 439

10.5 IBS in future – opportunity for wider IBS adoption 443

10.5.1 Greater Kuala Lumpur 444

10.5.2 Affordable housing 446

10.6 Conclusion 450

References 450

11 Affordable and Quality Housing Through Mechanization, Modernization and Mass Customisation 453
Zuhairi Abd. Hamid, Foo CheeHung, and Gan Hock Beng

11.1 Introduction 453

11.2 Design for flexibility – insight from the vernacular architecture 457

11.3 Scope of flexibility in residential housing 459

11.4 Divergent Dwelling Design (D3) – proposed mass housing system for today and tomorrow 461

11.5 Design principles of D3 464

11.5.1 The design of the unit plan 465

11.5.2 Unit configurations design 466

11.5.3 Sustainable strategies design 467

11.5.4 Structure and construction design 468

11.6 Conclusion 472

References 473

Index 475