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Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Materials and Applications for Electronics and Optoelectronics

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Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Materials and Applications for Electronics and Optoelectronics

Hajime Asahi (Editor), Yoshiji Horikoshi (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-35502-1 February 2019 512 Pages

Description

Covers both the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art technology used for MBE

Written by expert researchers working on the frontlines of the field, this book covers fundamentals of Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) technology and science, as well as state-of-the-art MBE technology for electronic and optoelectronic device applications. MBE applications to magnetic semiconductor materials are also included for future magnetic and spintronic device applications.

Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Materials and Applications for Electronics and Optoelectronics is presented in five parts: Fundamentals of MBE; MBE technology for electronic devices application; MBE for optoelectronic devices; Magnetic semiconductors and spintronics devices; and Challenge of MBE to new materials and new researches. The book offers chapters covering the history of MBE; principles of MBE and fundamental mechanism of MBE growth; migration enhanced epitaxy and its application; quantum dot formation and selective area growth by MBE; MBE of III-nitride semiconductors for electronic devices; MBE for Tunnel-FETs; applications of III-V semiconductor quantum dots in optoelectronic devices; MBE of III-V and III-nitride heterostructures for optoelectronic devices with emission wavelengths from THz to ultraviolet; MBE of III-V semiconductors for mid-infrared photodetectors and solar cells; dilute magnetic semiconductor materials and ferromagnet/semiconductor heterostructures and their application to spintronic devices; applications of bismuth-containing III–V semiconductors in devices; MBE growth and device applications of Ga2O3; Heterovalent semiconductor structures and their device applications; and more.

  • Includes chapters on the fundamentals of MBE
  • Covers new challenging researches in MBE and new technologies 
  • Edited by two pioneers in the field of MBE with contributions from well-known MBE authors including three Al Cho MBE Award winners
  • Part of the Materials for Electronic and Optoelectronic Applications series

Molecular Beam Epitaxy: Materials and Applications for Electronics and Optoelectronics will appeal to graduate students, researchers in academia and industry, and others interested in the area of epitaxial growth.

List of Contributors xv

Series Preface xix

Preface xxi

Part I Fundamentals of MBE 1

1. History of MBE 3
Tom Foxon

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 The MBE Process 4

1.3 Controlled n and p Doping 10

1.4 Modified Growth Procedures 10

1.5 Gas-Source MBE 11

1.6 Low-Dimensional Structures 11

1.7 III–V Nitrides, Phosphides, Antimonides and Bismides and Other Materials 13

1.8 Early MBE-Grown Devices 18

1.9 Summary 18

Acknowledgments 18

References 19

2. General Description of MBE 23
Yoshiji Horikoshi

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 High-Vacuum Chamber System 24

2.3 Atomic and Molecular Beam Sources 25

2.4 Measurement of MBE Growth Parameters 28

2.5 Surface Characterization Tools for MBE Growth 31

2.6 Summary 37

Acknowledgments 37

References 38

3. Migration-Enhanced Epitaxy and its Application 41
Yoshiji Horikoshi

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Toward Atomically Flat Surfaces in MBE 42

3.3 Principle of MEE 44

3.4 Growth of GaAs by MEE 48

3.5 Incommensurate Deposition and Migration of Ga Atoms 49

3.6 Application of MEE Deposition Sequence to Surface Research 50

3.7 Application of MEE to Selective Area Epitaxy 51

3.8 Summary 54

Acknowledgments 54

References 55

4. Nanostructure Formation Process of MBE 57
Koichi Yamaguchi

4.1 Introduction 57

4.2 Growth of Quantum Wells 58

4.3 Growth of Quantum Wires and Nanowires 60

4.4 Growth of Quantum Dots 64

4.5 Conclusion 71

References 72

5. Ammonia Molecular Beam Epitaxy of III-Nitrides 73
Micha N. Fireman and James S. Speck

5.1 Introduction 73

5.2 III-Nitride Fundamentals 74

5.3 Ammonia Molecular Beam Epitaxy 77

5.4 Ternary Nitride Alloys and Doping 82

5.5 Conclusions 86

References 86

Contents vii

6. Mechanism of Selective Area Growth by MBE 91
Katsumi Kishino

6.1 Background 91

6.2 Growth Parameters for Ti Mask SAG 92

6.3 Initial Growth of Nanocolumns 94

6.4 Nitrogen Flow Rate Dependence of SAG 95

6.5 Diffusion Length of Ga Adatoms 96

6.6 Fine Control of Nanocolumn Arrays by SAG 98

6.7 Controlled Columnar Crystals from Micrometer to Nanometer Size 100

6.8 Nanotemplate SAG of AlGaN Nanocolumns 101

6.9 Conclusions and Outlook 103

References 104

Part II MBE Technology for Electronic Devices Application 107

7. MBE of III-Nitride Semiconductors for Electronic Devices 109
Rolf J. Aidam, O. Ambacher, E. Diwo, B.-J. Godejohann, L. Kirste, T. Lim, R. Quay, and P. Waltereit

7.1 Introduction 109

7.2 MBE Growth Techniques 110

7.3 AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors on SiC Substrate 118

7.4 AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors on Si Substrate 123

7.5 HEMTs with Thin Barrier Layers for High-Frequency Applications 125

7.6 Vertical Devices 130

References 132

8. Molecular Beam Epitaxy for Steep Switching Tunnel FETs 135
Salim El Kazzi

8.1 Introduction 135

8.2 TFET Working Principle 136

8.3 III–V Heterostructure for TFETs 136

8.4 MBE for Beyond CMOS Technologies 138

8.5 Doping 139

8.6 Tunneling Interface Engineering 142

8.7 MBE for III–V TFET Integration 143

8.8 Conclusions and Perspectives 146

Acknowledgments 146

References 147

Part III MBE for Optoelectronic Devices 149

9. Applications of III–V Semiconductor Quantum Dots in Optoelectronic Devices 151
Kouichi Akahane and Yoshiaki Nakata

9.1 Introduction: Self-assembled Quantum Dots 151

9.2 Lasers Based on InAs Quantum Dots Grown on GaAs Substrates 152

9.3 InAs QD Optical Device Operating at Telecom Band (1.55 μm) 158

9.4 Recent Progress in QD Lasers 164

9.5 Summary 165

References 165

10. Applications of III–V Semiconductors for Mid-infrared Lasers 169
Yuichi Kawamura

10.1 Introduction 169

10.2 GaSb-Based Lasers 170

10.3 InP-Based Lasers 170

10.4 InAs-Based Lasers 173

10.5 Conclusion 174

References 174

11. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers 175
Harvey E. Beere and David A. Ritchie

11.1 Introduction 175

11.2 Epitaxial Challenges 179

References 189

12. MBE of III-Nitride Heterostructures for Optoelectronic Devices 191
C. Skierbiszewski, G. Muziol, H. Turski, M. Siekacz, K. Nowakowski-Szkudlarek, A. Feduniewicz- ̇ Zmuda, P. Wolny, and M. Sawicka

12.1 Introduction 191

12.2 Low-Temperature Growth of Nitrides by PAMBE 192

12.4 New Concepts of LDs with Tunnel Junctions 205

12.5 Summary 206

Acknowledgments 207

References 207

13. III-Nitride Quantum Dots for Optoelectronic Devices 211
Pallab Bhattacharya, Thomas Frost, Shafat Jahangir, Saniya Deshpande, and Arnab Hazari

13.1 Introduction 211

13.2 Molecular Beam Epitaxy of InGaN/GaN Self-organized Quantum Dots 212

13.3 Quantum Dot Wavelength Converter White Light-Emitting Diode 220

13.4 Quantum Dot Lasers 223

13.5 Summary and Future Prospects 229

References 230

14. Molecular-Beam Epitaxy of Antimonides for Optoelectronic Devices 233
Eric Tournie

14.1 Introduction 233

14.2 Epitaxy of Antimonides: A Brief Historical Survey 235

14.3 Molecular-Beam Epitaxy of Antimonide 236

14.4 Outlook 243

Acknowledgments 244

References 244

15. III–V Semiconductors for Infrared Detectors 247
P. C. Klipstein

15.1 Introduction 247

15.2 InAsSb XBn Detectors 251

15.3 T2SL XBp Detectors 255

15.4 Conclusion 262

Acknowledgments 262

References 262

16. MBE of III–V Semiconductors for Solar Cells 265
Takeyoshi Sugaya

16.1 Introduction 265

16.2 InGaP Solar Cells 266

16.3 InGaAsP Solar Cells Lattice-Matched to GaAs 268

16.4 InGaAsP Solar Cells Lattice-Matched to InP 271

16.5 Growth of Tunnel Junctions for Multi-Junction Solar Cells 272

16.6 Summary 277

References 277

Part IV Magnetic Semiconductors and Spintronics Devices 279

17. III–V-Based Magnetic Semiconductors and Spintronics Devices 281
Hiro Munekata

17.1 Introduction 281

17.2 Hole-Mediated Ferromagnetism 282

17.3 Molecular Beam Epitaxy and Materials Characterization 285

17.4 Studies in View of Spintronics Applications 293

17.5 Conclusions and Prospects 296

Acknowledgments 296

References 296

18. III-Nitride Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors 299
Yi-Kai Zhou and Hajime Asahi

18.1 Introduction 299

18.2 Transition-Metal-Doped GaN 300

18.3 Rare-Earth-Doped III-Nitrides 303

18.4 Device Applications 309

18.5 Summary 312

References 312

19. MBE Growth, Magnetic and Magneto-optical Properties of II–VI DMSs 315
Shinji Kuroda

19.1 II–VI DMSs Doped with Mn 315

19.2 II–VI DMSs Doped with Cr and Fe 319

19.3 ZnO-Based DMSs 323

References 325

20. Ferromagnet/Semiconductor Heterostructures and Nanostructures Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy 329
Masaaki Tanaka

20.1 Introduction 329

20.2 MnAs on GaAs(001) and Si(001) Substrates 330

20.3 GaAs:MnAs Granular Materials: Magnetoresistive Effects and Related Devices 337

20.4 Summary 345

Acknowledgments 345

References 346

21. MBE Growth of Ge-Based Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors 349
Tianxiao Nie, Jianshi Tang, and Kang L. Wang

21.1 Introduction 349

21.2 MBE Growth of MnxGe1−x Thin Film and Nanostructures 351

21.3 Magnetic Properties of MnxGe1−x Thin Films and Nanostructures 355

21.4 Electric-Field-Controlled Ferromagnetism and Magnetoresistance 359

21.5 Conclusion 362

Acknowledgments 362

References 363

Part V Challenge of MBE to New Materials and New Researches 365

22. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of Topological Insulators 367
Xiao Feng, Ke He, Xucun Ma, and Qi-Kun Xue

22.1 Introduction 367

22.2 MBE Growth of Bi2Se3 Family Three-Dimensional Topological Insulators 368

22.3 Defects in MBE-Grown Bi2Se3 Family TI Films 371

22.4 Band Structure Engineering in Ternary Bi2Se3 Family TIs 373

22.5 Magnetically Doped Bi2Se3 Family TIs 373

22.6 MBE Growth of 2D TI Materials 375

22.7 Summary 377

References 377

23. Applications of Bismuth-Containing III–V Semiconductors in Devices 381
Masahiro Yoshimoto

23.1 Introduction 381

23.2 Growth of GaAsBi 382

23.3 Properties of GaAsBi 384

23.4 Applications of GaAsBi 385

23.5 Applications of Other Bi-Containing Semiconductors 390

23.6 Summary 391

References 392

24. MBE Growth of Graphene 395
J. Marcelo J. Lopes

24.1 Introduction 395

24.2 MBE of Graphene on Metals 398

24.3 MBE of Graphene on Semiconductors 399

24.4 MBE of Graphene on Oxides and Other Dielectrics 403

24.5 Conclusions 407

Acknowledgments 408

References 408

25. MBE Growth and Device Applications of Ga2O3 411
Masataka Higashiwaki

25.1 Introduction 411

25.2 Physical Properties of Ga2O3 411

25.3 Ga2O3 Electronic Device Applications 414

25.4 Melt-Grown Bulk Single Crystals 414

25.5 Ga2O3 MBE Growth 414

25.6 Transistor Applications 419

25.7 Summary 421

References 421

26. Molecular Beam Epitaxy for Oxide Electronics 423
Abhinav Prakash and Bharat Jalan

26.1 Introduction 423

26.2 Structure–Property Relationship in Perovskite Oxides 423

26.3 Oxide Molecular Beam Epitaxy 430

26.4 Recent Developments in Oxide MBE 435

26.5 Outlook 443

26.6 Summary 447

Acknowledgments 447

References 447

27. In-situ STM Study of MBE Growth Process 453
Shiro Tsukamoto

27.1 Introduction 453

27.2 The Advantages of In-situ STM Observation for Understanding Growth Mechanisms 454

27.3 In-situ STM Observation of InAs Growth on GaAs(001) by STMBE System 454

27.4 In-situ STM Observation of Various Growths and Treatments on GaAs Surfaces by STMBE System 456

27.5 Conclusion 460

References 460

28. Heterovalent Semiconductor Structures and their Device Applications 463
Yong-Hang Zhang

28.1 Introduction 463

28.2 MBE Growth of Heterovalent Structures 465

28.3 ZnTe and GaSb/ZnTe Heterovalent Distributed Bragg Reflector Structures Grown on GaSb 466

28.4 CdTe/MgCdTe Structure and Heterovalent Devices Grown on InSb Substrates 468

28.5 Single-Crystal CdTe/MgxCd1−xTe Solar Cells 474

28.6 CdTe/InSb Two-Color Photodetectors 477

Acknowledgments 479

References 480

Index i1