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Molten Salts Chemistry and Technology

Molten Salts Chemistry and Technology

Marcelle Gaune-Escard, Geir Martin Haarberg

ISBN: 978-1-118-44882-3

May 2014

632 pages



Written to record and report on recent research progresses in the field of molten salts, Molten Salts Chemistry and Technology focuses on molten salts and ionic liquids for sustainable supply and application of materials. Including coverage of molten salt reactors, electrodeposition, aluminium electrolysis, electrochemistry, and electrowinning, the text provides researchers and postgraduate students with applications include energy conversion (solar cells and fuel cells), heat storage, green solvents, metallurgy, nuclear industry, pharmaceutics and biotechnology.

List of Contributors xxiii

Foreword xxix

Preface xxxi


1.1 Formation of CO2 and CO on Carbon Anodes in Molten Salts 3
J. Thonstad and E. Sandnes

1.2 Interaction of Carbon with Molten Salts 9
Derek Fray

1.3 Anode Processes on Carbon in Chloride Melts with Dissolved Oxides 17
E. Sandnes, G. M. Haarberg, A. M. Martinez, K. S. Osen and R. Tunold

1.4 Aluminium Electrolysis with Inert Anodes and Wettable Cathodes and with Low Energy
Consumption 27
Ioan Galasiu and Rodica Galasiu

1.5 Influence of the Sulfur Content in the Carbon Anodes in Aluminum Electrolysis – a
Laboratory Study 39
S. Pietrzyk and J. Thonstad

1.6 Aluminum Electrolysis in an Inert Anode Cell 53
O. Tkacheva, J. Spangenberger, B. Davis, and J. Hryn

1.7 Effect of Phosphorus Impurities on the Current Efficiency for Aluminium Deposition from Cryolite-Alumina Melts in a Laboratory Cell 71
R. Meirbekova, G. Sævarsdottir, J. P. Armoo, and G. M. Haarberg

1.8 Influence of LOI on Alumina Dissolution in Molten Aluminum Electrolyte 77
Y. Yang, B. Gao, X. Hu, Z. Wang, and Z. Shi

1.9 The Electrolytic Production of Al-Cu-Li Master Alloy by Molten Salts Electrolysis 85
B. Gao, S. Wang, J. Qu, Z. Shi, X. Hu, and Z. Wang

1.10 Transference Numbers in Na(K) Cryolite-Based Systems 95
J. Hýveš, P. Fellner, and J. Thonstad

1.11 125 years of the Hall Héroult Process – What Made It a Success? 103
O.-A. Lorentsen


2.1 Ionic Conduction of Oxygen and Calciothermic Reduction in Molten CaO-CaCl2 115
R. O. Suzuki, D. Yamada, S. Osaki, R. F. Descallar-Arriesgado, and T. Kikuchi

2.2 Effects of Temperature and Boron Concentration of a Boron-Doped Diamond (BDD) Electrode on NF3 Current Efficiency, and Stability of BDD Electrode in Molten NH4F⋅2HF 123
A. Tasaka, Y. Iida, T. Shiono, M. Uno, Y. Nishiki, T. Furuta, M. Saito, and M. Inaba

2.3 Nanoparticle Size Control Using a Rotating Disk Anode for Plasma-Induced Cathodic Discharge Electrolysis 133
M. Tokushige, T. Nishikiori, and Y. Ito

2.4 Cathodic Phenomena in Li Electrolysis in LiCl-KCl Melt 143
T. Takenaka, T. Morishige, and M. Umehara


3.1 Ionic Conductivity and Molecular Structure of a Molten xZnBr2-(1−x)ABr (A = Li, Na, K) System 151
T. Ohkubo, T. Tahara, K. Takahashi, and Y. Iwadate

3.2 Molten Salts: from First Principles to Material Properties 159
M. Salanne, P. A. Madden, and C. Simon

3.3 Different Phases of Fluorido-Tantalates 163
M. Boca, B. Kubýková, F. Šimko, M. Gembicky, J. Moncol, and K. Jomová

3.4 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of SiO2 and SiO2-CaO Mixtures 171
A. Jacob, A. Gray-Weale, and P. J. Masset

3.5 Thermodynamic Investigation of the BaF2-LiF-NdF3 System 181
M. Berkani and M. Gaune-Escard

3.6 The Stable Complex Species in Melts of Alkali Metal Halides: Quantum-Chemical
Approach 193
V. G. Kremenetsky, O. V. Kremenetskaya, and S. A. Kuznetsov

3.7 Molecular and Ionic Species in Vapor over Molten Ytterbium Bromides 203
M. F. Butman, D. N. Sergeev, V. B. Motalov, L. S. Kudin, L. Rycerz,and M. Gaune-Escard

3.8 Lithium Hydride Solubility in Molten Chlorides 213
P. J. Masset


4.1 In Situ Experimental Approach of Speciation in Molten Fluorides: A Combination of NMR, EXAFS, and Molecular Dynamics 221
C. Bessada, O. Pauvert, L. Maksoud, D. Zanghi, V. Sarou-Kanian, M. Gobet, A. L. Rollet, A. Rakhmatullin, M. Salanne, C. Simon, D. Thiaudiere, and H. Matsuura

4.2 NMR Study of Melts in the System Na3AlF6-Al2O3-AlPO4 229
A. Rakhmatullin, M. Keppert, G. M. Haarberg, F. Šimko, and C. Bessada

4.3 Structure and Dynamics of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Molten Fluorides by High-Temperature NMR and Molecular Dynamics 235
G. Moussaed, V. Sarou-Kanian, M. Gobet, M. Salanne, C. Simon, A.-L. Rollet and C. Bessada

4.4 Speciation of Niobium in Chloride Melts: An Electronic Absorption Spectroscopic Study 243
I. B. Polovov, N. P. Brevnova, V. A. Volkovich, M. V. Chernyshov, B. D. Vasin, and O. I. Rebrin

4.5 Electrode Processes in Vanadium-Containing Chloride Melts 257
I. B. Polovov, M. E. Tray, M. V. Chernyshov, V. A. Volkovich, B. D. Vasin, and O. I. Rebrin

4.6 Electrodeposition of Lead from Chloride Melts 283
G. M. Haarberg, L.-E. Owe, B. Qin, J. Wang, and R. Tunold

4.7 Electrodeposition of Ti from K2TiF6 in NaCl-KCl-NaF Melts 287
C.A.C. Sequeira

4.8 Effect of Electrolysis Parameters on the Coating Composition and Properties during Electrodeposition of Tungsten Carbides and Zirconium Diborides 295
V. Malyshev, D. Shakhnin, A. Gab, and M. Gaune-Escard

4.9 Galvanic Coatings of Molybdenum and Tungsten Carbides from Oxide Melts: Electrodeposition and Initial Stages of Nucleation 303
V. Malyshev, D. Shakhnin, A. Gab, and M. Gaune-Escard

4.10 Electrolytic Production of Matrix Coated Fibres for Titanium Matrix Composites 319
J. G. Gussone and J. M. Hausmann

4.11 Electrochemical Synthesis of Double Molybdenum Carbides 329
V.S. Dolmatov, S.A. Kuznetsov, E.V. Rebrov, and J.C. Schouten


5.1 Electrodeposition of Aluminium from Ionic Liquids 341
O.B. Babushkina, E.O. Lomako, J. Wehr, and O. Rohr

5.2 Electrolytic Synthesis of (CF3)3N from a Room Temperature Molten Salt of (CH3)3N⋅mHF with BDD Electrode 351
A. Tasaka, K. Ikeda, N. Osawa, M. Saito, M. Uno, Y. Nishki, T. Furuta, and M. Inaba

5.3 Electrodeposition of Reactive Elements from Ionic Liquids 359
A. Bund, A. Ispas, and S. Ivanov

5.4 Electrodeposition of Magnesium in Ionic Liquid at 150-200 C
B. Gao, T. Nohira, R. Hagiwara, and Z. Wang

5.5 Room-Temperature Ionic Liquid-Based SEM/EDX Techniques for Biological Specimens and in situ Electrode Reaction Observation 373
T. Tsuda, E. Mochizuki, S. Kishida, N. Nemoto, Y. Ishigaki, and S. Kuwabata


6.1 New Routes for the Production of Reactor Grade Zirconium 391
Y. Xiao, A. van Sandwijk, Y. Yang, and V. Laging

6.2 NMR and EXAFS Investigations of Lanthanum Fluoride Solubility in Molten LiF-ZrF4-LaF3 Mixture: Application in Molten Salts Reactor 403
L. Maksoud, M. Gobet, D. Zanghi, H. Matsuura, M. Numakura, O. Pauvert, and C.Bessada

6.3 Actinides Oxidative Back-Extraction from Liquid Aluminium, in Molten Chloride Media 411
E. Mendes, O. Conocar, A. Laplace, N. Douyère, J. Lacquement, and M. Miguirditchian

6.4 Formation of Uranium Fluoride Complex by Addition of Fluoride Ion to Molten NaCl-CsCl Melts 421
A. Uehara, O. Shirai, T. Fujii, T. Nagai, N. Sato, and H. Yamana

6.5 Corrosion of Austenitic Stainless Steels in Chloride Melts 427
A. V. Abramov, I. B. Polovov, V. A. Volkovich, and O. I. Rebrin

6.6 Pulsed Neutron Diffraction Study of Molten CsCl-NaCl-YCl3: Approaches from Fundamentals to Pyrochemical Reprocessing 449
Y. Iwadate, T. Ohkubo, T. Michii, H. Matsuura, A. Kajinami, K. Takase, N. Ohtori, N. Umesaki, R. Fujita, K. Mizuguchi, H. Kofuji, M. Myochin, M. Misawa, T. Fukunaga, and K. Itoh

6.7 Local Structural Analyses of Molten Thorium Fluoride in Mono- and Divalent Cationic Fluorides 459
M. Numakura, N. Sato, C. Bessada, A. Nezu, H. Akatsuka, and H. Matsuura

6.8 Electrodeposition of Uranium by Pulse Electrolysis in Molten Fluoride Salts 467
M. Straka , F. Lis´y, and L. Szatmáry

6.9 Quantitative Analysis of Lanthanides in Molten Chloride by Absorption Spectrophotometry 475
T. Uda, T. Fujii, K. Fukasawa, A. Uehara, K. Kinoshita, T. Koyama and H. Yamana

6.10 Formation of Rare Earth Phosphates in NaCl-2CsCl-Based Melts 481
V. A. Volkovich, A. B. Ivanov, S. M. Yakimov, I. B. Polovov, B. D. Vasin, A. V. Chukin, A. K. Shtolts, and T. R. Griffiths

6.11 A Novel Method for Trapping and Studying Volatile Molybdenum(V) in Alkali Chloride Melts: Implications for Treating Spent Nuclear Fuel 489
V. A. Volkovich, I. B. Polovov, R. V. Kamalov, B. D. Vasin, and T. R. Griffiths

6.12 Electrochemical Measurement of Diffusion Coefficient of U in Liquid Cd 499
T. Murakami, M. Kurata, Y. Sakamura, T. Koyama, N. Akiyama, S. Kitawaki, A. Nakayoshi, and M. Fukushima

6.13 Reduction of Uranyl(VI) Species in Alkali Chloride Melts 507
V. A. Volkovich, D. E. Aleksandrov, D. S. Maltsev, B. D. Vasin, I. B. Polovov, and T. R. Griffiths


7.1 Molten Salt Electrochemical Processes Directed Toward a Low Carbon Society 523
Yasuhiko Ito

7.2 Theoretical and Experimental Approach to Improve the Li2CO3-K2CO3 Eutectic Properties in MCFC Devices 535
V. Lair, V. Albin, A. Ringuedé, and M. Cassir

7.3 Conductive Property of Molten Carbonate/Ceria-Based Oxide (Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95) for Hybrid Electrolyte 543
M. Mizuhata, T. Ohashi, and S. Deki

7.4 Recent Progress in Alkali Nitrate/Nitrite Developments for Solar Thermal Power Applications 551
T. Bauer, D. Laing, and R. Tamme

7.5 Rechargeable Alkaline Metal Batteries of Amide Salt Electrolytes Melting at Low to Middle Temperatures 563
R. Hagiwara, T. Nohira, K. Numata, T. Koketsu, T. Yamamoto, T. Fujimori, T. Ishibashi,
A. Fukunaga, S. Sakai, K. Nitta, and S. Inazawa

7.6 Electrochemistry of Anodic Reaction in Molten Salt Containing LiOH for Lithium–Hydrogen Energy Cycle 571
Y. Sato, O. Takeda, M. Li, and M. Hoshi

7.7 Electrorefining of Silicon by the Three-Layer Principle in a CaF2-Based Electrolyte 577
E. Olsen, S. Rolseth, and J. Thonstad

7.8 Electrochemical Behaviour of Light Lanthanides in Molten Chlorides with Fluorides 585
Y. Shimohara, A. Nezu, M. Numakura, H. Akatsuka, and H. Matsuura

7.9 Using Molten Fluoride Melts for Silicon Electrorefining 597
P. Taxil, L. Massot, A.-L. Bieber, M. Gibilaro, L. Cassayre, and P. Chamelot

Index 605