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Morphological Theory: An Introduction to Word Structure in Generative Grammar



Morphological Theory: An Introduction to Word Structure in Generative Grammar

Andrew Spencer

ISBN: 978-0-631-16144-8 August 1991 Wiley-Blackwell 532 Pages

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This is the first near-exhaustive introduction to the burgeoning field of morphology in generative grammar. Presupposing very little prior knowledge of linguistics, the book guides the reader from absolute basics to the most recent theoretical developments. Written in an accessible style, and including a wealth of exercises, this textbook is designed so that it can be used either on courses explicitly focused on morphology or as an adjunct to other courses, particularly in generative syntax and in phonology.

The book opens with an account of the phenomena studied by morphologists, an outline of classical problems and an introduction to the earliest models of morphology proposed within the generative paradigm. Its second part deals with the interface between morphology and phonology and includes a detailed discussion of lexical Phonology, and related models, as well as a variety of types of nonconcatenative morphology.

Part III begins with a comprehensive introduction to more recent theories of word structure, including inflectional morphology. Subsequent chapters examine the interface between morphology and syntax, exploring the processes which affect grammatical relations, such as passives and causatives. Further chapters examine compounding processes and the morphology, phonology and syntax of clitic systems. The final part of the book includes a full discussion of "bracketing paradoxes" and closes with a survey of models of morphology and competing views of the place of morphology in linguistic theory.



Part I: Preliminaries.

1. The Domain of Morphology.

Word Structure.

Morphemes, Morphs and Allomorphy.

Types of Morphological Operation:.

Inflection and Derivation.

Morphemes: Things or Rules?.

Morphological Formatives: Morphemes as Things.

Morphological Formatives: Morphemes as Rules.


Functions of Morphology - Morphosyntax.


2. Basic Concepts and Pre-Generative Approaches.


Morphological Typology.

Morphemes, Words and The Lexicon:.

Morphemes and Allomorphy.

The Nature of Words.

The Lexicon.

Structuralist Theories.

The Three Models.




3. Early Generative Approaches.

Phonology and Syntax in the Standard Theory:.

The Standard Theory in Outline.

The SPE Model of Phonology.

Morphosyntax in the Standard Theory.

Chomsky's 'Remarks on Nominalization': Lexicalist Grammar:.

Generative Semantics and Lexical Transformations.


Concluding Remarks on 'Remarks'.

Halle's 'Prolegomena'.

Siegel's Level Ordering Hypothesis.

Aronoff's Word Formation in Generative Grammar:.

The Model in Outline.

The Form and Function of WFRs.

Justifying the Model.

The 'Classical' Model of Generative Morphology: Conclusions.


Part II: The Morphology-Phonology Interface.

4. Approaches to Allomorphy.


The SPE Model.

Natural Generative Phonology.

Lexical Phonology:.

Kiparsky's Alternation Condition.

Cyclic Phonology and Lexical Phonology.

Lexical Phonology: Summary.

Morpholexical Phonology.

Allomophy in Natural Morphology.

Zwigy's Shape Conditions.



5. Nonlinear Approaches to Morphology.


The Autosegmental Approach to Morphology:.

McCarthy's Theory.

Some Theoretical Consequences of McCarthy's Approach.


Further Applications of Nonconcantenative Morphology:.

Alternations Affecting Melody Elements.

Alternations Affecting the CV Skeleton.

Tones as Morphemes.




Part III: The Morphology-Syntax Interface.

6. Later Generative Theories.


Basic Issues:.

Problems with Level Ordering.

Constituent Structure in Morphology.

Argument Structure.

The Nature of Inflection.

The Constituent Structure of Words:.

Psg Approaches.

Lieber's 'Organization of the Lexicon'.

Syntactic Affixation.

Template Morphology.

Approaches to Inflection:.

Basic Issues.

Anderson's 'Extended Word-and-Paradigm' Theory.

Paradigms as Systems.

Paradigm Economy.



7. Grammatical Relations.


Overview of the Phenomena.

Theoretical Preliminaries:.

Representing Grammatical Relations.

Transformational Theories of Passive.

The Unaccusative Hypothesis.

Matantz's Theory:.


Affix-Mediated Alternations.

Morphological Merger: Causatives.

Morphological Merger: Applied Verbs.

Baker's Incorporation Theory:.

The Basic Principles.

PF Identification.


Applicatives (Applied Verbs).

Passives and Antipassives.


Lexical Approaches to Valency Alternations:.

Valency Alternations in the Llexicon.

Williams's Theory.

Excursus on Adjectival Passives (Levin and Rappaport).

Conclusions: Syntactic and Lexical Approaches.


8. Compounds.


Overview of Compound Types:.

Basic Concepts.

Compounding in Turkish.

Root Compounds.

English Synthetic Compounds:.


Roeper and Siegel (1978).

Selkirk (1982).

Lieber (1983).

Di Sciullo and Williams (1987).

Syntactic Approaches.

Fabb (1984).

Sproat (1985a).

Roeper (1988).

Postscript on Inheritance.

Roeper (1987).

Semantically Based Accounts of Inheritance.

Summary and Conclusions.


9. Clitics.


Four Case Studies:.






Definitions of Clitics.

Cliticization and Agreement.

Summary and Conclusions.


Part IV: The Word in Generative Grammar.

10. Bracketing Paradoxes.

Introduction: The Phenomena.

Bracketing Paradoxes in Lexical Phonology.

A Prosodic Approach (Aronoff and Sridhar).

Williams's Theory of 'Lexical Relatedness'.

Pesetsky's 'Morphological QR'.

Sproat's Mapping Principle.

Bracketing Paradoxes and Paradigmatic Word Formation.

Appendix: Sproat's Formalism.


11. The Place of Morphology.


Di Sciullo and Williams's Definition of Word'.

The Separation Hypothesis.

Zwicky's 'Interface Program'.

Autolexical Syntax.

Post-Syntactic Compounding in Japanese.

Parallel Morphology.




Subject Index.

Name Index.

Language Index.

"What Andrew Spencer aims to offer us here-for teh first time-is a comprehensive guide...he achieves his goals splendidly." Times Higher Education Supplement

"Spencer's new book on morphology provides for the first time a complete introduction to all of the major theoretical approaches to morphology being discussed in the literature today." John Goldsmith, University of Chicago