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Mt. Etna: Volcano Laboratory



Mt. Etna: Volcano Laboratory

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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 143.

For thousands of years man has marvelled at the gigantic structure that makes up Mt. Etna, the largest active volcano in Europe, and has lived side by side with the mountain, which despite its intense eruptive activity has always been considered a “friendly giant.”
After the Second World War, with its frequent but non life-threatening eruptions, Mt. Etna represented an ideal location for volcanological research for the national and international scientific community. Numerous scientists from Belgium, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America have taken part in volcanological research aimed at understanding the volcano.

Dedication vii

Preface ix

Acknowledgements xi

Introduction xiii

Section I: Geology and Eruptive History

Eruptions of Mt. Etna During the Past 3,200 Years: A Revised Compilation Integrating the Historical
and Stratigraphic Records
Stefono Branca and Paola Del Carlo 1

The Tectonics and Geodynamics of Mt. Etna: Synthesis and Interpretation of Geological
and Geophysical Data
Jean Claude Bousquet and Gianni Lanzafame 29

Geological Evolution of Etna Volcano
Stefano Branca, Mauro Coltelli, and Gianluca Groppelli 49

Valle del Bove, Eastern Flank of Etna Volcano: A Comprehensive Model for the Opening of
the Depression and Implications for Future Hazards
Sonia Calvari, Lawrence H. Tanner, Gianluca Groppelli, and Gianluca Norini 65

Last 100 kaTephrostratigraphic Record of Mount Etna
Paola Del Carlo, Luigina Vezzoli, and Mauro Coltelli 77

Section II: Petrology and Gas Geochemistry

Dynamics of Magmas at Mount Etna
Rosa Anna Corsaro and Mass/mo Pompilio 91

Volcanic Gas Emissions From the Summit Craters and Flanks of Mt. Etna, 1987-2000
Tommaso Calfablano, Michael Burton, Salvatore Giammanco, Patrick AWard, Nicola Bruno, Filippo Mure, and Romolo Romano 111

Magmatic Gas Leakage at Mount Etna (Sicily, Italy): Relationships With the Volcano-Tectonic
Structures, the Hydrological Pattern and the Eruptive Activity
Alessandro Aiuppa, Patrick AWard, Walter D'Alessandro, Salvatore Giammanco, Francesco Parello,
and Mariano Valenza 129

Section III: Seismology

Mt Etna Volcano: A Seismological Framework
Domenico Patane, Ornella Cocina, Susanna Falsaperla, Eugenio Privitera, and Salvatore Spampinafo 147

Faulting Processes and Earthquake Source Parameters at Mount Etna: State of the Art and Perspectives
Domenico Patane and Elisabetta Giampiccolo 167

The Mt. Etna Plumbing System: The Contribution of Seismic Tomography
Cloudio Chiarabba, Pasquale De Gori, and Domenico Patane 191

Seismicity and Active Tectonics in the Etna Region: Constraints for a Seismotectonic Model
Raffaele Azzaro 205

Section IV: Gravity and Electromagnetism

Microgravity Studies at Mount Etna (Italy)
Gennaro Budetta, Daniele Carbone, Filippo Greco, and Hazel Rymer 221

Magnetic Field Monitoring at Mt. Etna During the Last 20 Years
Ciro Del Negro and Rosalba Napoli 241

Magnetic Stratigraphy Procedures at Etna
Alberto Incoronato and Ciro Del Negro 263

A Geophysical Study of the Mount Etna Volcanic Area
Paolo Mauriello, Domenico Patella, Zaccaria Petrillo, Agata Siniscalchi, Teresa luliano, and Ciro Del Negro 273

Section V: Ground Deformation

Modeling of Ground Deformation Associated with Recent Lateral Eruptions: Mechanics of
Magma Ascent and Intermediate Storage at Mt. Etna
Alessandro Bonaccorso and Paul A. I. Davis 293

Continuous Tilt Monitoring: Lesson Learned From 20 Years Experience at Mt. Etna
Alessandro Bonaccorso, Orazio Campisi, Giuseppe Falzone, and Salvatore Gambino 307

Twelve Years of Ground Deformation Studies on Mt. Etna Volcano Based on GPS Surveys
Giuseppe Puglisi, Pierre Briole, and Alessandro Bonforte 321

Section VI: Lava Flow Simulation and Mitigation

Application of the Cellular Automata Model SCIARA to the 2001 Mount Etna Crisis
Donatella Barca, Gino A. I. Crisci, Rocco Rongo, Salvatore Di Gregorio, and William Spataro 343

The Control of Lava Flows at Mt. Etna
Franco Barberi and Maria Luisa Carapezza 357