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Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives, 10th Edition

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Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives, 10th Edition

James A. Banks (Editor), Cherry A. McGee Banks (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-51021-5 November 2019 384 Pages

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As diversity continues to increase in the United States, ethnic, cultural, social-class, and linguistic gaps are widening between teachers and their students. The rapidly changing educational landscape presents unique challenges and opportunities for addressing diversity both creatively and constructively in schools. Multicultural Education helps current and future educators fully understand sophisticated concepts of culture; become more effective practitioners in diverse classrooms; and view race, class, gender, social class, and exceptionality as intersectional concepts.

Now in its tenth edition, this bestselling textbook assists educators to effectively respond to the ways race, social class, and gender interact to influence student behavior and learning. Contributions from leading authorities in multicultural education discuss the effects of class and religion on education; differences in educational opportunities for male, female, and LGBTQ students; and issues surrounding non-native English speakers, students of color, and students with disabilities. Contemporary in relevance, this timely volume promotes multicultural education as a process of school reform. Practical advice helps teachers increase student academic achievement, work effectively with parents, improve classroom assessment, and benefit from diversity.

Preface xvii

Part 1 Issues and Concepts 1

1 Multicultural Education: Characteristics and Goals 3
by James A. Banks

1.1 The Nature of Multicultural Education 3

1.2 The Historical Development of Multicultural Education 4

1.2.1 How Multicultural Education Developed 6

1.3 The Nature of Culture in the United States 6

1.3.1 The Meaning of Culture 6

1.3.2 Identification and Description of the U.S. Core Culture 7

1.3.3 Equality 7

1.3.4 Individualism and Individual Opportunity 8

1.3.5 Individualism and Groupism 8

1.3.6 Expansionism and Manifest Destiny 8

1.3.7 Microcultures in the United States 9

1.3.8 Groups and Group Identification 11

1.3.9 The Teaching Implications of Group Identification 12

1.3.10 The Interaction of Race, Class, and Gender 13

1.4 The Social Construction of Categories 14

1.4.1 Gender 14

1.4.2 Sexual Orientation 14

1.4.3 Race 14

1.4.4 Social Class 15

1.4.5 Exceptionality 15

1.5 The Dimensions of Multicultural Education 16

1.5.1 Content Integration 17

1.5.2 The Knowledge Construction Process 17

1.5.3 Prejudice Reduction 18

1.5.4 An Equity Pedagogy 18

1.5.5 An Empowering School Culture and Social Structure 19

1.6 The School as a Social System 20

Summary 21

Questions and Activities 21

References 22

2 Culture, Teaching, and Learning 25
by Christina Convertino, Bradley A. Levinson, and Norma González

2.1 Getting to Know Culture 26

2.1.1 Some Early Origins of the Construct of Culture 27

2.1.2 Connecting Culture with Education 28

2.1.3 Culture Change and Changes to Culture 29

2.2 Culture and Educational Achievement 32

2.2.1 Cultural Deficit Models 32

2.2.2 Cultural Difference Model and Mismatch Hypothesis 33

2.2.3 Educational Achievement: Voluntary versus Involuntary Immigrant Students 34

2.3 Putting Culture to Work: Culture and Learning in the 21st Century 35

2.3.1 Rethinking Learning and Cultural Processes in Education 36

2.3.2 Learning in Context: What Teachers Need to Know 36

Summary 38

Questions and Activities 38

References 38

Part 2 Social Class and Religion 41

3 Social Class and Education 43
by Lois Weis, Seong Won Han, and Hyunmyung Jo

3.1 Education and the Production of Social and Economic Inequalities 45

3.2 Ability Grouping and Tracking 47

3.3 Official Knowledge and Its Distribution 48

3.4 Access and Outcomes in the Postsecondary Sector 49

3.5 Research on Class Privilege 52

Summary 54

Questions and Activities 54

References 54

4 Christian Nation or Pluralistic Culture: Religion in American Life 60
by Charles H. Lippy

4.1 Europeans Plant Christianity in North America 61

4.2 Early Signs of Diversity 61

4.3 Common Themes 62

4.4 The Spread of Evangelical Protestantism 63

4.5 Religious Freedom and the Separation of Church and State 64

4.6 Diversity, Religious Freedom, and the Courts 67

4.7 Pluralism Becomes the Norm 70

4.8 New Faces of Pluralism 72

4.9 Summary and Educational Implications 76

4.10 Resources 76

Questions and Activities 78

References 78

Part 3 Gender 81

5 Gender Bias: Past, Present, and Future 83
by David Sadker, Karen Zittleman, and Melissa Koch

5.1 The Hidden Civil Rights Struggle 84

5.2 Report Card: The Cost of Sexism in Schools 86

5.3 Gender Bias in the Classroom: The Curriculum 89

5.3.1 Invisibility: What You Don’t See Makes a Lasting Impression 90

5.3.2 Stereotyping: Glib Shortcuts 90

5.3.3 Imbalance and Selectivity: A Tale Half-Told 90

5.3.4 Unreality: Rose-Colored Glasses 90

5.3.5 Fragmentation: An Interesting Sideshow 91

5.3.6 Linguistic Bias: Words Matter 91

5.3.7 Cosmetic Bias: Pretty Wrapping 91

5.4 Gender Bias in the Classrooms: Student–Teacher Interaction 91

5.5 Trends and Challenges 93

5.5.1 The Boy Crisis 93

5.5.2 The Rebirth of Single-Sex Education 95

5.5.3 Supporting Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer/Questioning (LGBTQ) Students 97

5.6 Strategies for Creating Gender-Fair Classrooms 98

Questions and Activities 99

References 99

6 Classrooms for Diversity: Rethinking Curriculum and Pedagogy 101
by Mary Kay Thompson Tetreault

6.1 Feminist Phase Theory 102

6.2 Male-Defined Curriculum 102

6.3 Contribution Curriculum 104

6.4 Bifocal Curriculum 104

6.5 Women’s Curriculum 106

6.6 Gender-Balanced Curriculum 109

6.7 Changes in Traditional Ways of Teaching 110

Sample Lessons 113

Language Arts 113

Mathematics and Science 113

Social Studies 115

Summary 116

Questions and Activities 116

References 116

7 Queer Lessons: Sexual and Gender Minorities in Multicultural Education 118
by Cris Mayo

7.1 Sexuality and Gender Identity 119

7.2 LGBTQ Legal Progress, Backlash, and the School Curriculum 120

7.3 Overlapping Histories of Multiculturalism and LGBTQ Movements 122

7.4 Histories of Gay-Inclusive Multiculturalism and Other Curricular Inclusiveness 124

7.5 Challenges to Homophobia and Heterosexism 124

7.6 Challenging Assumptions about LGBTQ People 125

7.7 Why Homophobia and Transphobia? 128

7.8 Dilemmas of Queer Inclusion 129

7.9 Seven Things to Do to Improve Education for Students of All Sexual Orientations and Genders 131

Questions and Activities 132

References 132

Part 4 Race, Language Diversity, and Civic Education 135

8 Approaches to Multicultural Curriculum Reform 137
by James A. Banks

8.1 The Mainstream-Centric Curriculum 137

8.2 Public Sites and Popular History 139

8.3 Efforts to Establish a Multicultural Curriculum 141

8.4 Levels of Integration of Multicultural Content 142

8.4.1 The Contributions Approach 142

8.4.2 The Additive Approach 144

8.4.3 The Transformation Approach 146

8.4.4 The Social Action Approach 148

8.4.5 Mixing and Blending Approaches 150

8.5 Guidelines for Teaching Multicultural Content 153

Summary 154

Questions and Activities 155

References 155

9 Backstage Racism: Implications for Teaching 158
by Leslie H. Picca and Ruth Thompson-Miller

9.1 Context 159

9.2 Methodology 159

9.3 Journals by White Students 160

9.3.1 The Frontstage 161

9.3.2 The Backstage 162

9.4 Journals by Students of Color 164

9.5 Comparing the Journals Written by Whites and Students of Color 168

9.6 Conclusion and Next Actionable Steps 169

Journal Exercise 170

How Do I Do This? 170

Questions and Activities 172

References 172

10 Language Diversity and Schooling 174
by Rachel Snyder and Manka Varghese

10.1 The History of Linguistic Diversity in the United States 175

10.2 Current Linguistic Diversity in the United States 177

10.3 Historical and Legal Overview of Language Policy in the United States 179

10.3.1 Implementation of Federal Policy 179

10.3.2 Language Policy in Recent History 181

10.4 Views on Language Learning and Teaching 183

10.4.1 Language 183

10.4.2 Theories of Second-Language Learning 184

10.5 Programmatic Responses to Linguistic Diversity 185

10.5.1 Instructional Programs 185

10.5.2 The Bilingual Debate and the Research Context 186

10.5.3 Program Types that Contribute to Successful Educational Practice 187

10.6 Instructional Methods and Approaches 188

10.6.1 English as a Second Language Instructional Strategies 188

10.6.2 Instructional Methods for Bilingual Education 189

10.7 Additional Considerations 190

10.7.1 The Lived Reality of Today’s Linguistically Diverse Students 190

10.8 Conclusion 191

Questions and Activities 192

Resources 192

Professional Associations 193

Websites 193

References 193

11 Civic Education for Non-Citizen and Citizen Students 198
by James A. Banks

11.1 Multicultural Citizenship Education and Cosmopolitan Human Rights Education 199

11.2 A Framework for Civic Education for Non-Citizens 200

11.3 Human Rights, Cosmopolitanism, and the Education of Non-Citizen Students 201

11.4 Education for Human Rights and Cosmopolitan Citizenship 202

11.5 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Education: Challenges and Opportunities 203

11.6 The Stages of Cultural Identity and Human Rights Cosmopolitan Education 205

11.7 Multicultural Citizenship Education for Citizen Students 208

11.8 Mainstream and Transformative Civic Education 210

Summary 211

Acknowledgments 212

Questions and Activities 212

References 212

Part 5 Exceptionality 215

12 Educational Equality for Students with Disabilities 217
by Sara C. Bicard and William L. Heward

12.1 Identification of Students with Disabilities 218

12.2 Is Disability a Social Construct? 220

12.3 How Many Students with Disabilities are There? 220

12.4 How are Students with Disabilities Classified? 221

12.5 How is Eligibility for Special Education Determined? 222

12.6 Does Classification Affect Instruction? 222

12.7 Brief History of Educational Equality for Students with Disabilities 222

12.8 The Individuals with Disabilities Act: A Legislative Mandate for Educational Equality for Students with Disabilities 224

12.8.1 Major Principles of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act 224

12.8.2 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 229

12.8.3 The Americans with Disabilities Act 229

12.8.4 The Elementary and Secondary Education Act 230

12.9 Educational Equality for Students with Disabilities: Progress Made but Challenges Remain 230

12.9.1 Effective Instruction 231

12.9.2 General and Special Education Partnership 232

12.9.3 Early Intervention 233

12.9.4 Transition from School to Adult Life 233

12.9.5 Special Education in a Diverse Society 234

Summary 235

Questions and Activities 236

References 236

13 Culturally Responsive Special Education in Inclusive Schools 240
by Luanna H. Meyer, Hyun-Sook Park, and Saili Kulkarni

13.1 Special Education as Exclusion and Segregation 241

13.2 Strategies to Prevent Misdiagnosis and Disproportionality 243

13.3 The Monoculture of Mainstream Education 244

13.4 Parent Involvement and Working with Families 246

13.5 Causes of Limited Parent Involvement 247

13.6 Strategies for Schools to Increase Parent Involvement 249

13.6.1 Preparation of Professionals for Partnerships with Parents 250

13.6.2 Preparation of Parents for Partnerships with Educators 251

13.7 Culturally Competent Teachers and Inclusive Pedagogies 251

13.8 Preintervention Culturally Responsive Teaching 252

13.9 Culturally Responsive Interventions 254

13.10 Culturally Situated Schooling and Inclusive Pedagogies 255

13.11 Quality Inclusive Schools 255

13.12 Delivery of Special Education in the Context of General Education 256

13.13 Managing Inclusive Classrooms 257

13.14 Diversity and Caring Communities: Outcomes for the Social Good 258

Questions and Activities 259

References 260

Part 6 School Reform and Classroom Assessment 265

14 School Reform and Student Learning: A Multicultural Perspective 267
by Sonia Nieto and Patty Bode

14.1 Defining School Reform with a Multicultural Perspective 268

14.2 Conditions for Systemic School Reform Based on a Multicultural Perspective 269

14.3 School Reform Should Be Antiracist and Antibiased 270

14.4 School Reform Should Reflect an Understanding and Acceptance of All Students as Having Talents and Strengths That Can Enhance Their Education 273

14.5 School Reform Should Be Considered within the Parameters of Critical Pedagogy 275

14.6 What Kind of World Do You Want to Live In? Practicing and studying the Declaration of Human Rights 276

14.7 The People Most Intimately Connected with Teaching and Learning (Teachers, Families, and Students) Need to Be Meaningfully Involved in School Reform 278

14.8 School Reform Needs to Be Based on High Expectations and Rigorous Standards for All Learners 278

14.9 Conclusion 279

Questions and Activities 280

References 280

15 Communities, Families, and Educators Working Together for School Improvement 284
by Cherry A. McGee Banks

15.1 Reasons Why Parent and Family Involvement in Schools is Important 287

15.2 Historical Overview 289

15.3 The Changing Face of the Family 290

15.4 Parents with Special Needs 293

15.5 Single Parents 294

15.6 Low-Income Parents 294

15.7 Teacher Concerns with Parent and Family Involvement 295

15.8 Steps to Increase Parent and Family Involvement 296

15.9 Establish Two-Way Communication Between the School and the Home 297

15.10 Enlist Support from Other Staff Members and Students 298

15.11 Enlist Support from the Community 299

15.12 Develop Learning Resources for Parents to Use at Home 300

15.13 Broaden the Conception of Parent and Community Involvement 301

15.13.1 Parents Working with Their Own Children 301

15.13.2 Professional Support Person for Instruction 302

15.13.3 General Volunteers 302

15.13.4 Decision-Makers 302

Summary 303

Questions and Activities 303

Websites 303

References 304

16 Classroom Assessment and Diversity 306
by Catherine S. Taylor and Susan B. Nolen

16.1 Bias and Sensitivity Issues in Assessment 308

16.2 Lessons Learned from a Bias and Sensitivity Review Panel 310

16.2.1 “Othering” 310

16.2.2 Consistency with Culture 310

16.2.3 Respect for Indigenous Peoples 311

16.2.4 Developing Interpretations 311

16.2.5 Culturally Inappropriate Content 311

16.3 Investigating Potential Bias through Statistical Analyses 312

16.3.1 The Case of Bias Due to Multiple-Choice Format 313

16.4 The Impact of Language Complexity on ELL Students’ Performance 314

16.5 Potential Bias in Computer-Based Testing 315

16.6 The Effects of Engagement on Assessment Performance 317

16.7 The Social Context of Assessment 321

16.8 Teacher Assessment Practices 322

Summary 323

Questions and Activities 323

References 324

Appendix: Multicultural Resources 329

Glossary 333

Contributors 339

Index 343

  • Revised to reflect current and emerging research, theories, and practices
  • Updated Census data, statistics, theories, and interpretations
  • Chapter bibliographies contain new references and resources
  • Current statistical data from the United States Census American Community Survey and updated multicultural resources in the Appendix
  • A chapter written by James A. Banks discusses how civic education should be changed to effectively educate the growing number of non-citizen immigrant students in public schools
  • Several chapters have new co-authors with fresh insights and perspectives
  • Features contributors who represent a wide range of perspectives, educations, and experiences
  • Covers new developments, research, and theories in multicultural education
  • Offers a curated list of additional resources for all topics covered, such as gender, race, special education, LGBTQ issues, second language learning, and school reform
  • Helps new and current educators handle the variety of issues that face them in the classroom
  • Edited by well-respected authorities in the field of multicultural education
  • Suggests practical steps to encourage creative ways to balance unity and diversity in education