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NGN Architectures, Protocols and Services

NGN Architectures, Protocols and Services

Toni Janevski

ISBN: 978-1-118-60738-1

Mar 2014

368 pages

Description

Comprehensive coverage explaining the correlation and synergy between Next Generation Networks and the existing standardized technologies

This book focuses on Next Generation Networks (NGN); in particular, on NGN architectures, protocols and services, including technologies, regulation and business aspects. NGN provides convergence between the traditional telecommunications and the Internet, and it is globally standardized by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union), where ITU is the United Nations specialized agency for Information and Communication Technologies – ICTs. The convergence towards the NGN is based on the Internet technologies, and the introductory chapters cover the Internet fundamentals of today, including architectures, protocols (IPv4, IPv6, TCP, DNS, etc.), Internet services (WWW, e-mail, BitTorrent, Skype, and more), as well as Internet governance. Further, the prerequisite for convergence of all ICT services over single network architectures is broadband access to the Internet. Hence, the book includes architectures of fixed broadband Internet access networks, such as DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) networks, cable networks, FTTH (Fiber To The Home), next generation passive and active optical networks, and metro Ethernet. It also covers network architectures for next generation (4G) mobile and wireless networks (LTE/LTE-Advanced, and Mobile WiMAX 2.0), then Fixed Mobile Convergence - FMC, next generation mobile services, as well as business and regulatory aspects for next generation mobile networks and services.

  • Comprehensive coverage explaining the correlation and synergy between Next Generation Networks and the existing standardized technologies
  • Focuses on Next Generation Networks (NGN) as defined by the ITU, including performance, service architectures and mechanisms, common IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem), control and signalling protocols used in NGN, security approaches, identity management, NGN Service Overlay Networks, and NGN business models
  • Examines the most important NGN services, including QoS-enabled VoIP, IPTV over NGN, web services in NGN, peer-to-peer services, Ubiquitous Sensor Network (USN) services, VPN services in NGN, Internet of things and web of things
  • Includes the transition towards NGN from the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Networks) and from the best-effort Internet via the same Internet access
  • Explores advanced topics such as IPv6-based NGN, network virtualization, and future packet based networks, as well as business challenges and opportunities for the NGN evolved networks and services

Essential reading for engineers and employees from regulatory bodies, government organisations, telecommunication companies, ICT companies.

About the Author xiii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Traditional Telecom World 3

1.2.1 History of Telephony 4

1.3 Public Switched Telephone Networks 5

1.3.1 Pulse Code Modulation 7

1.3.2 Architecture of the Telephone Network 7

1.4 Signaling Network 9

1.4.1 SS7 Architecture 9

1.4.2 SS7 Protocol Model 11

1.5 Transmission Systems 12

1.5.1 Multiplexing of Digital Channels 13

1.5.2 Time Division Multiplexing in PSTN 14

1.6 Traditional Internet world 16

1.6.1 History of the Internet 16

1.6.2 Growth of the Internet 19

1.6.3 Internet Architecture 20

1.7 The Convergence of the Two Worlds: Next Generation Networks 23

1.7.1 NGN Perspective of Telecom Operators 24

1.7.2 When Will NGN Emerge? 25

1.8 The Structure of This Book 25

References 26

2 Internet Fundamentals by IETF 29

2.1 Internet Architecture and IETF Standardization 29

2.2 Fundamental Internet Protocols 29

2.2.1 Internet Protocol Version 4 29

2.2.2 Internet Protocol Version 6 31

2.2.3 User Datagram Protocol 33

2.2.4 Transmission Control Protocol 34

2.2.5 Stream Control Transmission Protocol 41

2.3 Addressing and Numbering 43

2.3.1 IPv4 Addressing 44

2.3.2 Network Address Translation 46

2.3.3 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 47

2.3.4 Domain Name System 49

2.3.5 ENUM 50

2.3.6 IPv6 Addressing Architecture 51

2.4 Internet Routing 52

2.4.1 Routing Algorithms 54

2.5 Client–Server Networking 58

2.6 Peer-to-Peer Networking 59

2.7 Best-Effort Internet Services 60

2.7.1 Electronic Mail 60

2.7.2 File Transfer Protocol 61

2.7.3 World Wide Web 62

2.7.4 Peer-to-Peer Services 63

2.8 Internet Governance 65

References 66

3 NGN Standards and Architectures 69

3.1 Main Drivers to Next Generation Networks 69

3.1.1 Fixed Broadband Internet Access 70

3.1.2 Mobile Broadband Internet Access 71

3.1.3 Convergence to IP-based Networks and Services 72

3.1.4 End-User Drivers toward NGN 72

3.1.5 Operator Drivers toward NGN 73

3.2 ITU-T NGN Standards 75

3.2.1 NGN Architectures 77

3.2.2 End-to-End Quality of Service 77

3.2.3 Security 78

3.2.4 Generalized Mobility 78

3.2.5 Network Control Architectures and Protocols 78

3.2.6 Service Capabilities and Service Architectures 79

3.2.7 Interoperability of Services and Networks in NGN 79

3.2.8 Future Networks 79

3.3 Standardization Synergy of ITU, IETF, 3GPP, and IEEE 80

3.3.1 IETF Role 81

3.3.2 ETSI Role 82

3.3.3 3GPP Role 82

3.3.4 IEEE Role 82

3.4 All-IP Network Concept for NGN 83

3.5 NGN Functional Architecture 86

3.5.1 Transport Stratum Functions 89

3.5.2 Transport Control Functions 90

3.5.3 Service Stratum Functions 91

3.5.4 Management Functions 92

3.5.5 Identity Management Functions 92

3.5.6 End-User Functions 92

3.5.7 NGN Configuration and Topology 93

3.6 NGN Control Architectures and Protocols 94

3.6.1 Network Access Configuration Functional Entity 94

3.6.2 Access Management Functional Entity 95

3.6.3 Transport Location Management Functional Entity 95

3.6.4 Transport Authentication and Authorization Functional Entity 96

3.6.5 Transport User Profile Functional Entity 96

3.6.6 Home Gateway Configuration Functional Entity 96

3.6.7 Access Relay Functional Entity 96

3.7 Numbering, Naming, and Addressing in NGN 96

3.7.1 Numbering Scheme 97

3.7.2 Naming and Addressing Schemes 98

3.7.3 Numbering, Naming, and Addressing Scheme for NGN 99

3.7.4 Discussion 101

References 101

4 Broadband Internet: the Basis for NGN 103

4.1 ITU’s Work on Broadband Internet 103

4.1.1 ITU-T Work on Broadband 103

4.1.2 ITU-R Work on Broadband 104

4.1.3 ITU-D Work on Broadband 105

4.2 DSL and Cable Access Networks 105

4.2.1 ADSL Success Story 105

4.2.2 ADSL Access Architecture 106

4.2.3 ADSL Frequency Bands and Modulation 107

4.2.4 Other DSL Technologies 108

4.2.5 ADSL Network Architecture 109

4.2.6 Cable Access Network 111

4.3 FTTH Access Networks 115

4.4 Next Generation Passive and Active Optical Networks 119

4.4.1 PON Standards 119

4.4.2 Next Generation Passive Optical Networks 123

4.4.3 Next Generation Active Optical Networks 127

4.5 Metro Ethernet 128

4.5.1 Virtual LAN (IEEE 802.1Q) 130

4.5.2 Provider Bridges (IEEE 802.1ad) 130

4.5.3 Provider Backbone Bridges (IEEE 802.1ah) 130

4.5.4 Metro Ethernet for Mobile Backhaul Service 131

4.6 Regulation and Business Aspects 135

4.6.1 Regulation of Prices for Broadband Services and Markets 135

4.6.2 Regulation of Wholesale Prices 136

4.6.3 Regulation of Retail Prices 137

4.7 Discussion 138

References 138

5 Mobile Broadband: Next Generation Mobile Networks 141

5.1 ITU’s IMT-Advanced: the 4G Umbrella 141

5.2 4G Standard by 3GPP: LTE/LTE-Advanced 143

5.2.1 LTE/LTE-Advanced Standardization 144

5.2.2 System Architecture Evolution 145

5.2.3 LTE/LTE-Advanced Radio Access 152

5.3 4G Standard by IEEE: Mobile WiMAX 2.0 156

5.3.1 Mobile WiMAX Network Architecture 157

5.3.2 Quality of Service in WiMAX Networks 158

5.3.3 Mobile WiMAX 2.0 Radio Interface 158

5.4 Fixed-Mobile Convergence 160

5.5 IP Multimedia Subsystem for NGN 161

5.5.1 Proxy CSCF 164

5.5.2 Serving CSCF 164

5.5.3 Interrogating CSCF 164

5.5.4 Naming and Addressing in IMS 165

5.6 Mobility Management in NGN 165

5.6.1 Conceptual Framework for MM 167

5.6.2 Architecture for Mobility Management in Transport Stratum 168

5.6.3 Architecture for Mobility Management in Service Stratum 170

5.7 Next Generation Mobile Services 171

5.7.1 Mobile TV 172

5.7.2 Location-Based Services 174

5.8 Regulation and Business Aspects 175

5.8.1 Spectrum Management for Mobile Broadband 176

5.8.2 Business Aspects for Mobile Broadband 177

5.9 Discussion 178

References 178

6 Quality of Service and Performance 181

6.1 Quality of Service and Quality of Experience in NGN 181

6.1.1 What is QoS? 181

6.1.2 ITU-T QoS Framework 182

6.1.3 Performance Parameters for IP Services 185

6.1.4 Quality of Experience 188

6.2 Resource and Admission Control Functions 189

6.2.1 RACF Functional Architecture 190

6.2.2 RACF Deployment Architectures 192

6.2.3 RACF Communication between Different NGN Operators 195

6.2.4 Example of Admission Control with RACF 195

6.3 QoS Architecture for Ethernet-Based NGN 197

6.3.1 Reference Architecture for Ethernet-Based NGN 198

6.3.2 QoS Services in Ethernet-Based NGN 200

6.4 Flow-State-Aware Transport 203

6.4.1 Network Architecture for Flow-Aggregate Information Exchange 205

6.4.2 Protocols for FSA Transport 206

6.5 Management of Performance Measurements in NGN 211

6.6 NGN Architecture for MPLS Core Networks 213

6.6.1 Centralized RACF Architecture for MPLS Core Networks 213

6.6.2 Distributed RACF Architecture for MPLS Core Networks 215

6.7 Discussion 217

References 218

7 Service Aspects 221

7.1 Service Architecture in NGN 221

7.2 Managed Delivery Services (MDS) 224

7.2.1 Service Provisioning with MDS 225

7.2.2 MDS Functional Architecture 228

7.3 IMS-Based Real-Time Multimedia Services 229

7.3.1 Multimedia Communication Center 231

7.3.2 IMS-Based IPTV 231

7.4 Control and Signaling Protocols for NGN 233

7.4.1 Diameter 233

7.4.2 Session Initiation Protocol 240

7.5 Security Mechanisms for NGN 247

7.5.1 Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting in NGN 247

7.5.2 Transport Security in NGN 249

7.6 NGN Identity Management 250

7.7 Service Continuity 252

7.8 Next Generation Service Overlay Networks 254

7.8.1 SON Framework 255

7.8.2 SON-Based Services 256

7.9 Discussion 257

References 258

8 NGN Services 261

8.1 QoS-Enabled VoIP 261

8.1.1 Differences between VoIP and PSTN 262

8.1.2 VoIP Protocols and QoS Aspects 263

8.1.3 QoS-Enabled VoIP in NGN 266

8.2 IPTV over NGN 269

8.2.1 IPTV Functional Architecture 270

8.2.2 Multicast-Based IPTV Content Delivery 273

8.2.3 Unicast-Based IPTV Content Delivery 274

8.3 Web Services in NGN 276

8.4 Ubiquitous Sensor Network Services 280

8.4.1 USN Functional Architecture 283

8.4.2 USN Applications 285

8.5 VPN Services in NGN 285

8.6 Internet of Things and Web of Things 288

8.6.1 Internet of Things 288

8.6.2 Web of Things 290

8.7 Business and Regulation of Converged Services and Contents 293

8.7.1 Business Models for NGN Services 293

8.7.2 Regulation of NGN Services 296

8.8 Discussion 298

References 298

9 Transition to NGN and Future Evolution 301

9.1 Migration of PSTN Networks to NGN 301

9.1.1 Evolution of PSTN/ISDN to NGN 301

9.1.2 PSTN/ISDN Emulation and Simulation 304

9.2 Transition of IP Networks to NGN 306

9.3 Carrier Grade Open Environment 307

9.4 IPv6-Based NGN 310

9.4.1 Multihoming in IPv6-Based NGN 312

9.4.2 Object Mapping Using IPv6 in NGN 318

9.4.3 Migration to IPv6-Based NGN 320

9.5 Network Virtualization 321

9.6 Future Packet Based Network 324

9.6.1 Cloud Computing 324

9.6.2 Software Defined Networking 326

9.7 Business Challenges and Opportunities 327

9.8 Discussion 330

References 331

10 Conclusions 333

Index 337