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Nano- and Microencapsulation for Foods

Nano- and Microencapsulation for Foods

Hae-Soo Kwak (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-29233-4

Jun 2014, Wiley-Blackwell

432 pages

In Stock

$205.95

Description

Today, nano- and microencapsulation are increasingly being utilized in the pharmaceutical, textile, agricultural and food industries. Microencapsulation is a process in which tiny particles or droplets of a food are surrounded by a coating to give small capsules. These capsules can be imagined as tiny uniform spheres, in which the particles at the core are protected from outside elements by the protective coating. For example, vitamins can be encapsulated to protect them from the deterioration they would undergo if they were exposed to oxygen. 

This book highlights the principles, applications, toxicity and regulation of nano- and microencapsulated foods.

Section I describes the theories and concepts of nano- and microencapsulation for foods adapted from pharmaceutical areas, rationales and new strategies of encapsulation, and protection and controlled release of food ingredients.

Section II looks closely at the nano- and microencapsulation of food ingredients, such as vitamins, minerals, phytochemical, lipid, probiotics and flavors. This section provides a variety of references for functional food ingredients with various technologies of nano particles and microencapsulation. This section will be helpful to food processors and will deal with food ingredients for making newly developed functional food products.

Section III covers the application of encapsulated ingredients to various foods, such as milk and dairy products, beverages, bakery and confectionery products, and related food packaging materials.

Section IV touches on other related issues in nano- and microencapsulation, such as bioavailability, bioactivity, potential toxicity and regulation. 

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xvii

1 Overview of Nano- and Microencapsulation for Foods 1
Hae-Soo Kwak

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Nano- or microencapsulation as a rich source of delivery of functional components 3

1.3 Wall materials used for encapsulation 3

1.4 Techniques used for the production of nano- or microencapsulation of foods 4

1.5 Characterization of nano- or microencapsulated functional particles 5

1.6 Fortification of foods through nano- or microcapsules 6

1.7 Nano- or microencapsulation technologies: industrial perspectives and applications in the food market 6

1.8 Overview of the book 8

Acknowledgments 12

References 12

Part I Concepts and rationales of nano- and microencapsulation for foods 15

2 Theories and Concepts of Nano Materials, Nano- and microencapsulation 17
Jingyuan Wen, Guanyu Chen, and Raid G. Alany

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Materials used for nanoparticles, nano- and microencapsulation 19

2.2.1 Polymers 19

2.3 Nano- and microencapsulation techniques 20

2.3.1 Chemical methods 20

2.3.2 Physico-chemical methods 23

2.3.3 Other methods 25

2.3.4 Factors influencing optimization 28

2.4 Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications 30

2.4.1 Various delivery routes for nano- and microencapsulation systems 30

2.5 Food ingredients and nutraceutical applications 35

2.5.1 Background and definitions 35

2.5.2 Nanomaterials, nano- and microencapsulation in nutraceuticals 36

2.6 Conclusion 37

References 38

3 Rationales of Nano- and Microencapsulation for Food Ingredients 43
Sundaram Gunasekaran and Sanghoon Ko

3.1 Introduction 43

3.2 Factors affecting the quality loss of food ingredients 45

3.2.1 Oxygen 45

3.2.2 Light 47

3.2.3 Temperature 48

3.2.4 Adverse interaction 49

3.2.5 Taste masking 50

3.3 Case studies of food ingredient protection through nano- and microencapsulation 50

3.3.1 Vitamins 51

3.3.2 Enzymes 52

3.3.3 Minerals 53

3.3.4 Phytochemicals 54

3.3.5 Lipids 55

3.3.6 Probiotics 55

3.3.7 Flavors 56

3.4 Conclusion 57

References 58

4 Methodologies Used for the Characterization of Nano- and Microcapsules 65
Minh-Hiep Nguyen, Nurul Fadhilah Kamalul Aripin, Xi G. Chen, and Hyun-Jin Park

4.1 Introduction 65

4.2 Methodologies used for the characterization of nano- and microcapsules 67

4.2.1 Particle size and particle size distribution 67

4.2.2 Zeta potential measurement 75

4.2.3 Morphology 77

4.2.4 Membrane flexibility 80

4.2.5 Stability 82

4.2.6 Encapsulation efficiency 83

4.3 Conclusion 88

Acknowledgements 88

References 88

5 Advanced Approaches of Nano- and Microencapsulation for Food Ingredients 95
Mi-Jung Choi and Hae-Soo Kwak

5.1 Introduction 95

5.2 Nanoencapsulation based on the microencapsulation technology 96

5.3 Classification of the encapsulation system 97

5.3.1 Nanoparticle or microparticle 97

5.3.2 Structural encapsulation systems 100

5.4 Preparation methods for the encapsulation system 106

5.4.1 Emulsification 106

5.4.2 Precipitation 107

5.4.3 Desolvation 108

5.4.4 Ionic gelation 109

5.5 Application of the encapsulation system in food ingredients 109

5.6 Conclusion 110

References 111

Part II Nano- and microencapsulations of food ingredients 117

6 Nano- and Microencapsulation of Phytochemicals 119
Sung Je Lee and Marie Wong

6.1 Introduction 119

6.2 Classification of phytochemicals 120

6.2.1 Flavonoids 120

6.2.2 Carotenoids 124

6.2.3 Betalains 126

6.2.4 Phytosterols 127

6.2.5 Organosulfurs and glucosinolates 128

6.3 Stability and solubility of phytochemicals 129

6.4 Microencapsulation of phytochemicals 130

6.4.1 Spray-drying 131

6.4.2 Freeze-drying 135

6.4.3 Liposomes 136

6.4.4 Coacervation 138

6.4.5 Molecular inclusion complexes 141

6.5 Nanoencapsulation 146

6.5.1 Nanoemulsions 147

6.5.2 Nanoparticles 148

6.5.3 Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) 150

6.5.4 Nanoparticles through supercritical anti-solvent precipitation 152

6.6 Conclusion 153

References 153

7 Microencapsulation for Gastrointestinal Delivery of Probiotic Bacteria 167
Kasipathy Kailasapathy

7.1 Introduction 167

7.2 The gastrointestinal (GI) tract 169

7.2.1 Microbiota of the adult GI tract 169

7.2.2 Characteristics of the GI tract for probiotic delivery 170

7.3 Encapsulation technologies for probiotics 173

7.4 Techniques for probiotic encapsulation 175

7.4.1 Microencapsulation (ME) in gel particles using polymers 175

7.4.2 The extrusion technique 175

7.4.3 The emulsion technique 177

7.4.4 Spray-drying, spray-coating and spray-chilling technologies 179

7.4.5 Microencapsulation technologies for nutraceuticals incorporating probiotics 182

7.5 Controlled release of probiotic bacteria 182

7.6 Potential applications of encapsulated probiotics 183

7.6.1 Yoghurt 184

7.6.2 Cheese 185

7.6.3 Frozen desserts 186

7.6.4 Unfermented milks 186

7.6.5 Powdered formulations 187

7.6.6 Meat products 187

7.6.7 Plant-based (vegetarian) probiotic products 188

7.7 Future trends and marketing perspectives 189

References 191

8 Nano-Structured Minerals and Trace Elements for Food and Nutrition Applications 199
Florentine M. Hilty and Michael B. Zimmermann

8.1 Introduction 199

8.2 Special characteristics of nanoparticles 200

8.3 Nano-structured entities in natural foods 202

8.4 Nano-structured minerals in nutritional applications 202

8.4.1 Iron 202

8.4.2 Zinc 207

8.4.3 Calcium 209

8.4.4 Magnesium 210

8.4.5 Selenium 211

8.4.6 Copper 211

8.5 Uptake of nano-structured minerals 212

8.6 Conclusion 213

References 214

9 Nano- and Microencapsulation of Vitamins 223
Ashok R. Patel and Bhesh Bhandari

9.1 Introduction 223

9.2 Vitamins for food and nutraceutical applications 224

9.2.1 Vitamins: nutritional requirement and biological functions 224

9.2.2 Vitamins: formulation challenges and stability issues 224

9.3 Colloidal encapsulation (nano and micro) in foods: principles of use 227

9.3.1 Solid-in-liquid dispersions 229

9.3.2 Liquid-in-liquid dispersions 232

9.3.3 Dispersions of self-assembled colloids 234

9.3.4 Encapsulation in dry matrices 238

9.3.5 Molecular encapsulation of vitamins in cyclodextrins 239

9.4 Conclusion and future trends 240

References 241

10 Nano- and Microencapsulation of Flavor in Food Systems 249
Kyuya Nakagawa

10.1 Introduction 249

10.2 Flavor stabilization in food nano- and microstructures 250

10.2.1 Application of encapsulated flavors 250

10.2.2 Interactions between flavor compounds and carrier matrices 251

10.2.3 Flavor retention in colloidal systems 251

10.2.4 Flavor retention in food gel 252

10.2.5 Flavor inclusion in starch nanostructure 253

10.3 Flavor retention and release in an encapsulated system 254

10.3.1 Mass transfer at the liquid–gas interface 254

10.3.2 Mass transfer at a solid–gas interface 258

10.4 Nano- and microstructure processing 259

10.4.1 Spray-drying 260

10.4.2 Freeze-drying 262

10.4.3 Complex coacervation 264

10.5 Conclusion 266

Acknowledgements 267

References 267

11 Application of Nanomaterials, Nano- and Microencapsulation to Milk and Dairy Products 273
Hae-Soo Kwak, Mohammad Al Mijan, and Palanivel Ganesan

11.1 Introduction 273

11.2 Milk 274

11.2.1 Microencapsulation of functional ingredients 274

11.2.2 Microencapsulation of vitamins 278

11.2.3 Microencapsulation of iron 279

11.2.4 Microencapsulation of lactase 281

11.2.5 Nanofunctional ingredients 285

11.2.6 Nanocalcium 287

11.3 Yogurt 287

11.3.1 Microencapsulation of functional ingredients 287

11.3.2 Microencapsulation of iron 288

11.3.3 Nanofunctional ingredients 289

11.4 Cheese 291

11.4.1 Microencapsulation for accelerated cheese ripening 291

11.4.2 Microencapsulation of iron 292

11.4.3 Nanopowdered functional ingredients 292

11.5 Others 293

11.5.1 Microencapsulation of iron 293

11.6 Conclusion 293

References 294

12 Application of Nano- and Microencapsulated Materials to Food Packaging 301
Loong-Tak Lim

12.1 Introduction 301

12.2 Nanocomposite technologies 302

12.2.1 Layered silicate nanocomposites 302

12.2.2 Mineral oxide and organic nanocrystal composites 305

12.2.3 Material properties’ enhancement of biodegradable/compostable polymers 306

12.3 Intelligent and active packaging based on nano- and microencapsulation technologies 307

12.3.1 Product quality and shelf-life indicators 308

12.3.2 Nano- and microencapsulated antimicrobial composites 312

12.3.3 TiO2 ethylene scavenger for shelf-life extension of fruits and vegetables 317

12.4 Conclusion 318

References 319

Part III Bioactivity, toxicity, and regulation of nanomaterial, nano- and microencapsulated ingredients 325

13 Controlled Release of Food Ingredients 327
Sanghoon Ko and Sundaram Gunasekaran

13.1 Introduction 327

13.2 Fracturation 328

13.3 Diffusion 329

13.4 Dissolution 331

13.5 Biodegradation 333

13.6 External and internal triggering 334

13.6.1 Thermosensitive 335

13.6.2 Acoustic sensitive 336

13.6.3 Light-sensitive 337

13.6.4 pH-sensitive 338

13.6.5 Chemical-sensitive 339

13.6.6 Enzyme-sensitive 339

13.6.7 Other stimuli 340

13.7 Conclusion 340

References 340

14 Bioavailability and Bioactivity of Nanomaterial, Nano- and Microencapsulated Ingredients in Foods 345
Soo-Jin Choi

14.1 Introduction 345

14.2 Bioavailability of nano- and microencapsulated phytochemicals 347

14.3 Bioavailability of other nano- and microencapsulated nutraceuticals 352

14.4 Bioavailability of nano- and microencapsulated bioactive components 355

14.5 Conclusion 357

References 358

15 Potential Toxicity of Food Ingredients Loaded in Nano- and Microparticles 363
Guanyu Chen, Soon-Mi Shim, and Jingyuan Wen

15.1 Introduction 363

15.2 Factors influence the toxicity of nano- and microparticles 365

15.2.1 Size of the nano- and microparticles 366

15.2.2 Shape of the nano- and microparticles 367

15.2.3 Solubility of the nano- and microparticles 367

15.2.4 Chemical composition of the nano- and microparticles 367

15.3 Behavior and health risk of nano- and microparticles in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract 370

15.3.1 Absorption 370

15.3.2 Distribution 371

15.3.3 Excretion/elimination 371

15.4 Toxicity studies of nano- and microparticles 371

15.4.1 Oral exposure studies for toxicity 371

15.4.2 In vitro studies for toxicity 372

15.4.3 Lack of an analytical method model to evaluate the safety of micro- and nanoparticles 373

15.5 Risk assessment of micro- and nanomaterials in food applications 374

15.5.1 Risk assessment 375

15.6 Conclusion 377

References 377

16 Current Regulation of Nanomaterials Used as Food Ingredients 383
Hyun-Kyung Kim, Jong-Gu Lee, and Si-Young Lee

16.1 Introduction 383

16.2 The European Union (EU) 384

16.2.1 Definition 384

16.2.2 The EFSA Guidance 385

16.2.3 Regulation 386

16.3 The United Kingdom (UK) 388

16.4 France 389

16.5 The United States of America (USA) 389

16.6 Canada 391

16.7 Korea 392

16.8 Australia and New Zealand 393

References 393

Index 395

“This book will help food companies to develop new nanotechnology for major problems such as the development of functional coatings to enhance the long-term suitability of food products.”  (South African Food Science and Technology magazine, 1 February 2015)