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Nanocarbons for Advanced Energy Storage, Volume 1

Nanocarbons for Advanced Energy Storage, Volume 1

Xinliang Feng (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-68005-4

Mar 2015

488 pages

Description

This first volume in the series on nanocarbons for advanced applications presents the latest achievements in the design, synthesis, characterization, and applications of these materials for electrochemical energy storage. The highly renowned series and volume editor, Xinliang Feng, has put together an internationally acclaimed expert team who covers nanocarbons such as carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, graphenes, and porous carbons. The first two parts focus on nanocarbon-based anode and cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, while the third part deals with carbon material-based supercapacitors with various applications in power electronics, automotive engineering and as energy storage elements in portable electric devices.
This book will be indispensable for materials scientists, electrochemists, physical chemists, solid state physicists, and those working in the electrotechnical industry.

Preface XIII

List of Contributors XV

1 Nanostructured Activated Carbons for Supercapacitors 1
Wentian Gu, XinranWang, and Gleb Yushin

1.1 Supercapacitors 1

1.2 Activated Carbon as Electrode for Supercapacitors 3

1.3 Synthesis of ACs 4

1.3.1 Precursors 4

1.3.2 Activation Method 11

1.4 Various Forms of ACs as Supercapacitor Electrodes 13

1.4.1 Activated Carbon Powders 13

1.4.2 Activated Carbon Films and Monoliths 14

1.4.3 Activated Carbon Fibers 15

1.5 Key Factors Determining the Electrochemical Performance of AC-Based Supercapacitors 16

1.5.1 Pore Size and Pore Size Distribution 16

1.5.2 Pore Alignment 19

1.5.3 Surface Functionalization 20

1.5.4 Electrical Conductivity of the Electrode 21

1.5.5 Electrolyte Selection 22

1.5.6 Understandings of Ion Adsorption in Porous Structure 23

1.5.7 Quantum Capacitance of Carbon and Doping 26

1.6 Self-discharge of ACs-Based Supercapacitors 27

1.7 Summary 28

References 29

2 Nanocarbon Hybrids with Silicon, Sulfur, or Paper/Textile for High-Energy Lithium Ion Batteries 35
Nian Liu, Guangyuan Zheng, and Yi Cui

2.1 Introduction 35

2.2 Nanocarbon/Silicon Hybrid Anodes 36

2.2.1 Nanocarbon@Silicon Structure 37

2.2.2 Silicon@Nanocarbon Structure 38

2.2.3 Silicon@Void@Nanocarbon Structure 40

2.2.4 Nanocarbon/Silicon Hierarchical Structure 41

2.3 Nanocarbon/Sulfur Hybrid Cathodes 42

2.3.1 0D Nanocarbon (Nanoporous Carbon) 44

2.3.2 1D Nanocarbon (Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers) 46

2.3.3 2D Nanocarbon (Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide) 47

2.3.4 3D Nanostructured Carbon 48

2.4 Nanocarbon/Paper/Textile Hybrids as Conductive Substrates 49

2.4.1 Carbon Nanotubes/Paper/Textile Hybrids 49

2.4.2 Graphene/Textile Hybrids 51

2.5 Conclusion and Perspective 52

References 52

3 Precursor-Controlled Synthesis of Nanocarbons for Lithium Ion Batteries 59
Shuling Shen, Xianglong Li, and Linjie Zhi

3.1 Introduction 59

3.2 Precursor-Controlled Synthesis of Nanocarbons 60

3.3 Nanocarbons in LIBs 63

3.3.1 Pure Nanocarbons as Anode in LIBs 63

3.3.2 Nanocarbon Composites as Anode in LIBs 67

3.3.3 Nanocarbon in Cathode of LIBs 78

3.4 Summary and Outlook 79

References 80

4 Nanocarbon/Metal Oxide Hybrids for Lithium Ion Batteries 87
JiapingWang, Li Sun, YangWu, Mengya Li, Kaili Jiang, and Shoushan Fan

4.1 Metal Oxides (MOs) for Lithium Ion Batteries 87

4.2 Carbon Nanocoating/MO Hybrids for LIBs 89

4.2.1 Manganese Oxides/Carbon Coating Hybrids 89

4.2.2 Iron Oxides/Carbon Coating Hybrids 91

4.2.3 Tin Oxides/Carbon Coating Hybrids 92

4.2.4 Other MOs/Carbon Coating Hybrids 92

4.3 CNFs/MO Hybrids and CNTs/MO Hybrids 93

4.3.1 CNFs/MO Hybrids 95

4.3.2 CNTs/MO Hybrids 96

4.4 Graphene/MO Hybrids 98

4.4.1 Cobalt Oxides/Graphene Hybrids 101

4.4.2 Iron Oxides/Graphene Hybrids 101

4.4.3 Manganese Oxides/Graphene Hybrids 103

4.4.4 Tin Oxides/Graphene Hybrids 104

4.4.5 Other MOs/Graphene Hybrids 105

4.5 Hierarchical Nanocarbon/MO Hybrids 106

4.5.1 Carbon Nanocoating/CNTs/MO Hybrids 106

4.5.2 Carbon Nanocoating/Graphene/MO Hybrids 107

4.5.3 CNFs/CNTs/Graphene/MO Hybrids 108

4.6 Summary and Perspectives 110

Acknowledgments 111

References 111

5 Graphene for Flexible Lithium-Ion Batteries: Development and Prospects 119
Lei Wen, Feng Li, Hong-Ze Luo, and Hui-Ming Cheng

5.1 Introduction 119

5.1.1 Development of Flexible Electronic Devices 119

5.1.2 Principle of LIBs 122

5.1.3 Current Status of Flexible LIBs 124

5.2 Types of Flexible LIBs 127

5.2.1 Definition of Flexible LIBs 127

5.2.2 Design and Fabrication of Bendable LIBs 128

5.2.3 Design and Fabrication of Stretchable LIBs 131

5.3 Current Status of Graphene-Based Electrodes for Bendable LIBs 136

5.3.1 Fabrication of Graphene 138

5.3.2 Graphene/Non-conductive Flexible Substrates 140

5.3.3 Graphene Films 143

5.3.4 Self-Standing Graphene Composites 146

5.3.5 Graphene Fibers 149

5.4 Characterization of Graphene-Based Bendable Electrodes 155

5.4.1 Mechanical Properties of Flexible Electrodes 156

5.4.2 Mechanical Stability of Flexible Electrodes under Deformation 158

5.4.3 Static and Quasi-Dynamic Electrochemical Performance 159

5.4.4 Dynamic Electrochemical Performance 161

5.5 Prospects of Flexible LIBs 162

5.6 Summary and Perspective 169

Acknowledgment 169

References 169

6 Supercapatteries with Hybrids of Redox Active Polymers and Nanostructured Carbons 179
Anthony J. Stevenson, Denys G. Gromadskyi, Di Hu, Junghoon Chae, Li Guan, Linpo Yu, and George Z. Chen

6.1 Introduction 179

6.2 Electrochemical Capacitance 180

6.3 Supercapattery 183

6.4 Carbon Nanotubes and Redox Active Polymers 185

6.5 Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Hybrids 188

6.5.1 Synthesis of CNT and RAPs Hybrids 188

6.5.2 Performance of CNT/RAP Hybrids 192

6.6 Electrode and Cell Fabrication 193

6.7 Electrolytes and Separator 196

6.7.1 Electrolytes 197

6.7.2 Separator 199

6.8 Recycling of Materials 199

6.9 Conclusion 203

Abbreviations 204

References 204

7 Carbon-Based Supercapacitors Produced by the Activation of Graphene 211
Ziqi Tan, Guanxiong Chen, and Yanwu Zhu

7.1 Introduction 211

7.2 Supercapacitors Produced from activated graphene 215

7.2.1 Activated Graphene as Electrode Materials 215

7.2.2 Effects of Graphene Precursors before Activation 218

7.2.3 Optimization Based on Activated Graphene 220

7.3 Conclusion and Remarks 223

Acknowledgments 223

References 224

8 Supercapacitors Based on Graphene and Related Materials 227
Kothandam Gopalakrishnan, Achutharao Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao

8.1 Introduction 227

8.2 Characteristics of Supercapacitors 228

8.3 Activated Carbons 228

8.4 Carbon Nanotubes 231

8.5 Graphene-Based Supercapacitors 233

8.6 Graphene Micro-Supercapacitors 236

8.7 Nitrogen-Doped Graphene 239

8.8 Boron-Doped Graphene 242

8.9 Graphene Pseudocapacitors 243

8.10 Graphene-Conducting Polymer Composites 243

8.11 Graphene-Transition Metal Oxide Composites 247

References 249

9 Self-Assembly of Graphene for Electrochemical Capacitors 253
Yiqing Sun and Gaoquan Shi

9.1 Introduction 253

9.2 The Chemistry of Chemically Modified Graphene 254

9.3 The Self-Assembly of CMGs into 2D Films 255

9.3.1 Vacuum-Filtration-Induced Self-Assembly 256

9.3.2 Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly 258

9.3.3 Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) Technique 259

9.3.4 Layer-by-Layer (LBL) Assembly 261

9.4 Self-Assembling CMG Sheets into 3D Architectures 263

9.4.1 Template-Free Self-Assembly 264

9.4.2 Template Guided Self-Assembly 268

9.4.3 Ice Segregation Induced Self-Assembly 270

9.5 Self-Assembled Graphene Materials for ECs 271

9.6 Conclusions and Perspectives 274

References 275

10 Carbon Nanotube-Based Thin Films for Flexible Supercapacitors 279
Zhiqiang Niu, Lili Liu,Weiya Zhou, Xiaodong Chen, and Sishen Xie

10.1 Introduction 279

10.2 Solution-Processed CNT Films 281

10.3 Solution-Processed Composite CNT Films 285

10.4 Directly Synthesized SWCNT Films 289

10.5 The Composite Films Based on Directly Synthesized SWCNT Films 293

10.6 Conclusions and Outlook 295

References 296

11 Graphene and Porous Nanocarbon Materials for Supercapacitor Applications 301
Yanhong Lu and Yongsheng Chen

11.1 Introduction 301

11.2 Construction and Classification of Supercapacitors 303

11.2.1 Electrical Double Layer Capacitors (EDLCs) 304

11.2.2 Pseudo-Supercapacitors (PSCs) 306

11.2.3 Asymmetrical Supercapacitors (ASCs) 308

11.2.4 Micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) 309

11.3 A Performance Study of EDLCs Based on Nanocarbon Materials 311

11.3.1 Specific Surface Area 312

11.3.2 Pore Size Distribution 313

11.4 Porous Nanocarbon Materials for Supercapacitors 315

11.4.1 Activated Carbons (ACs) 317

11.4.2 Templated Carbons 318

11.4.3 Carbide-Derived Carbons (CDCs) 320

11.4.4 Graphene-Based Materials 321

Summary 328

Acknowledgments 328

References 328

12 Aligned Carbon Nanotubes and Their Hybrids for Supercapacitors 339
Hao Sun, Xuemei Sun, Zhibin Yang, and Huisheng Peng

12.1 Introduction 339

12.2 Synthesis of Aligned CNT Materials 339

12.3 Properties of Aligned CNT Materials 343

12.4 Planar Supercapacitors 344

12.5 Fiber-Shaped Supercapacitors 349

12.6 Summary and Outlook 356

References 357

13 Theoretic Insights into Porous Carbon-Based Supercapacitors 361
Nada Mehio, Sheng Dai, JianzhongWu, and De-en Jiang

13.1 Introduction 361

13.2 Classical Density Functional Theory 362

13.3 Ionic Liquid-Based Electric Double-Layer Capacitors 363

13.3.1 Differential Capacitance at the Planar IL/Electrode Interface 365

13.3.2 Interfacial Layering of Ionic Liquids 366

13.3.3 Oscillation of Ionic Liquid EDLC Capacitance with Variations in Pore Size 368

13.4 Organic Electrolyte Based Electric Double-Layer Capacitors 371

13.4.1 Effects of Pore Size on Capacitance for Organic Electrolyte EDLCs 371

13.4.2 Effects of Solvent Polarity on Capacitance 373

13.5 Summary and Outlook 375

Acknowledgments 376

References 376

14 Nanocarbon-Based Materials for Asymmetric Supercapacitors 379
Faxing Wang, Zheng Chang,Minxia Li, and Yuping Wu

14.1 Introduction 379

14.2 Activated Carbons for ASCs 382

14.2.1 Preparation Methods 382

14.2.2 Electrochemical Performance in Organic Electrolytes 383

14.2.3 Electrochemical Performance in Aqueous Electrolytes 385

14.3 Graphene for ASCs 389

14.3.1 Preparation Methods 389

14.3.2 Electrochemical Performance in Organic Electrolytes 390

14.3.3 Electrochemical Performance in Aqueous Electrolytes 390

14.4 Nanocarbon Composites for ASCs 392

14.4.1 Composites Based on AC 392

14.4.2 Composites Based on CNTs 395

14.4.3 Composites Based on Graphene 399

14.5 Other Carbon Materials and Their Composites for ACSs 403

14.5.1 Preparation Methods 403

14.5.2 Electrochemical Performance in Organic Electrolytes 405

14.5.3 Electrochemical Performance in Aqueous Electrolytes 406

14.6 All Solid State ASCs Based on Nanocarbon Materials 407

14.7 Summary and Prospects 409

Acknowledgments 410

References 410

15 Nanoporous Carbide-Derived Carbons as ElectrodeMaterials in Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors 417
Martin Oschatz, Lars Borchardt, Guang-Ping Hao, and Stefan Kaskel

15.1 Introduction 417

15.2 Synthesis and Materials 418

15.2.1 Historical Perspective 418

15.2.2 Mechanisms of CDC Synthesis 419

15.2.3 Pore Structure of CDCs 424

15.2.4 Hierarchical CDCs from Polymer Precursors 426

15.2.5 CDC Nanoparticles 430

15.3 Application of CDCs in EDLCs 431

15.3.1 Role of Electrolyte System 432

15.3.2 Role of Particle Size and Shape 433

15.3.3 Role of Mesopore Structure 434

15.3.4 Role of Device Design 436

15.4 Electrosorption Mechanisms in CDC-Based EDLCs 437

15.4.1 Ion Desolvation in CDC Micropores 438

15.4.2 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy 438

15.4.3 Computational Modeling Studies 440

15.5 Conclusions and Outlook 442

Acknowledgments 443

References 443

Index 455