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Nanocellulose Polymer Nanocomposites: Fundamentals and Applications

Nanocellulose Polymer Nanocomposites: Fundamentals and Applications

Vijay Kumar Thakur

ISBN: 978-1-118-87190-4

Dec 2014

536 pages

In Stock

$227.00

Description

Biorenewable polymers based nanomaterials are rapidly emerging as one of the most fascinating materials for multifunctional applications. Among biorenewable polymers, cellulose based nanomaterials are of great importance due to their inherent advantages such as environmental friendliness, biodegradability, biocompatibility, easy processing and cost effectiveness, to name a few. They may be produced from biological systems such as plants or be chemically synthesised from biological materials.

 

This book summarizes the recent remarkable achievements witnessed in green technology of cellulose based nanomaterials in different fields ranging from biomedical to automotive. This book also discusses the extensive research developments for next generation nanocellulose-based polymer nanocomposites. The book contains seventeen chapters and each chapter addresses some specific issues related to nanocellulose and also demonstrates the real potentialities of these nanomaterials in different domains.

 

The key features of the book are:

  • Synthesis and chemistry of nanocellulose from different biorenewable resources
  • Different  characterization of nanocellulosic materials and their respective polymer nanocomposites
  • Physico-chemical, thermal and mechanical investigation of nanocellulose based polymer nanocomposites
  • Provides elementary information and rich understanding of the present state-of- art of nanocellulose-based materials
  • Explores the full range of applications of different nanocellulose-based materials.

Preface xvii

Part 1: Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocellulose based Polymer Nanocomposites 1

1 Nanocellulose-Based Polymer Nanocomposites: An Introduction 3
Manju Kumari Thakur, Vijay Kumar Thakur and Raghavan Prasanth

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Nanocellulose: Source, Structure, Synthesis and Applications 5

1.3 Conclusions 12

References 13

2 Bacterial  Cellulose-Based  Nanocomposites: Roadmap for Innovative Materials 17
Ana R. P. Figueiredo, Carla Vilela, Carlos Pascoal Neto, Armando J. D. Silvestre and Carmen S. R. Freire

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Bacterial Cellulose Production, Properties and Applications 18

2.3 Bacterial Cellulose-Based Polymer Nanocomposites 28

2.4 Bacterial Cellulose-Based Hybrid Nanocomposite Materials 41

2.5 Acknowledgements               

References 55

3 Polyurethanes Reinforced with Cellulose 65
María L. Auad, Mirna A. Mosiewicki and Norma E. Marcovich

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 Conventional Polyurethanes Reinforced with Nanocellulose Fibers 67

3.3 Waterborne Polyurethanes Reinforced with Nanocellulose Fibers 76

3.4 Biobased Polyurethanes Reinforced with Nanocellulose Fibers 78

Conclusions and Final Remarks 84

References 85

4 Bacterial Cellulose and Its Use in Renewable Composites 89
Dianne R. Ruka, George P. Simon and Katherine M. Dean

4.1 Introduction 89

4.2 Cellulose Properties and Production 91

4.3 Tailor-Designing Bacterial Cellulose 105

4.4 Bacterial Cellulose Composites 114

4.5 Biodegradability 121

4.6 Conclusions 123

References 123

5 Nanocellulose-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites Fabricated by In-Situ Polymerization Technique 131
Dipa Ray and Sunanda Sain

5.1 Introduction 131

5.2 Cellulose as Filler in Polymer Matrix Composites 132

5.3 Cellulose Nanocomposites 138

5.4 In-Situ Polymerized Cellulose Nanocomposites 138

5.5 Novel Materials with Wide Application Potential 140

5.6 Effect of In-Situ Polymerization on Biodegradation Behavior of Cellulose Nanocomposites 154

5.7 Future of Cellulose Nanocomposites 157

References 159

6 Multifunctional Ternary Polymeric Nanocomposites Based on Cellulosic Nanore- inforcements 163
D. Puglia, E. Fortunati, C. Santulli and J. M. Kenny

6.1 Introduction 163

6.2 Cellulosic Reinforcements (CR) 166

6.3 Interaction of CNR with Different Nanoreinforcements 171

6.4 Ternary Polymeric Systems Based on CNR 179

6.5 Conclusions 190

Acknowledgments 191

References 191

7 Effect of Fiber Length on Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Nanobiocomposites Reinforced with Kenaf Fiber and Nanoclay 199
Na Sim and Seong Ok Han

7.1 Introduction 199

7.2 Experimental 200

7.3 Results and Discussion 202

7.4 Conclusions 211

References 211

8 Cellulose-Based Liquid Crystalline Composite Systems 215
J. P. Borges, J. P. Canejo, S. N. Fernandes and M. H. Godinho

8.1 Introduction 215

8.2 Liquid Crystalline Phases of Cellulose and Its Derivatives 216

8.3 Conclusion  232

Acknowledgements 232

References 232

9 Recent Advances in Nanocomposites Based on Biodegradable Polymers and Nanocellulose 237
J. I. Morán, L. N. Ludueña and V. A. Alvarez

9.1 Introduction 237

9.2 Cellulose Bionanocomposites Incorporation of Cellulose Nanofibers into Biodegradable Polymers: General Effect on the Properties 243

9.3 Future Perspectives and Concluding Remarks 249

References 250

Part 2: Processing and Applications Nanocellulose based Polymer Nanocomposites 255

10 Cellulose  Nano/Microfibers-Reinforced  Polymer Composites: Processing Aspects 257
K. Priya Dasan and A. Sonia

10.1 Introduction 257

10.2 The Role of Isolation Methods on Composite Properties 260

10.3 Pretreatment of Fibers and Its Role in Composite Performance 262

10.4 Different Processing Methodologies in Cellulose Nanocomposites and Their Effect on Final Properties 264

10.5 Conclusion 268

References 268

11 Nanocellulose-Based Polymer Nanocomposite: Isolation, Characterization and Applications 273
H. P. S. Abdul Khalil, Y. Davoudpour, N. A. Sri Aprilia, Asniza Mustapha, Md. Nazrul Islam and Rudi Dungani

11.1 Introduction 274

11.2 Cellulose and Nanocellulose 274

11.3 Isolation of Nanocellulose 276

11.4 Characterization of Nanocellulose 283

11.5 Drying of Nanocellulose 289

11.6 Modifications of Nanocellulose 290

11.7 Nanocellulose-Based Polymer Nanocomposites 295

11.8 Conclusion 302

Acknowledgement 303

References 303

12 Electrospinning of Cellulose: Process and Applications 311
Raghavan Prasanth, Shubha Nageswaran, Vijay Kumar Takur and Jou-Hyeon Ahn

12.1 Cellulosic Fibers 311

12.2 Crystalline Structure of Electrospun Cellulose 312

12.3 Applications of Cellulose 313

12.4 Electrospinning 313

12.5 Electrospinning of Cellulose 317

12.6 Solvents for Electrospinning of Cellulose 318

12.7 Cellulose Composite Fibers 333

12.8 Conclusions 336

Abbreviations 336

Symbols 336

References 337

13 Effect of Kenaf Cellulose Whiskers on Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Nanocomposites Properties 341
Lukmanul Hakim Zaini, M. T. Paridah, M. Jawaid, AlothmanY. Othman and A. H. Juliana

13.1 Introduction 341

13.2 Experimental 342

13.3 Characterization 344

13.4 Result and Discussion 345

13.5 Conclusions 352

Acknowledgements 353

References 353

14 Processes in Cellulose Derivative Structures 355
Mihaela Dorina Onofrei, Adina Maria Dobos and Silvia Ioan

14.1 Introduction 355

14.2 Liquid Crystalline Polymers 357

14.3 Liquid Crystal Dispersed in a Polymer Matrix 359

14.4 Techniques for Obtaining Liquid Crystals Dispersed into a Polymeric Matrix 360

14.5 Some Methods to Characterize the Liquid Crystal State 360

14.6 Liquid Crystal State of Cellulose and Cellulose Derivatives in Solution 364

14.7 Cellulose Derivatives/Polymers Systems 373

Conclusions 383

References 384

15 Cellulose Nanocrystals: Nanostrength for Industrial and Biomedical Applications 393
Anuj Kumar, Samit Kumar, Yuvraj Singh Negi and Veena Choudhary

15.1 Introduction 393

15.2 Cellulose and Its Sources 394

15.3 Nanocellulose 396

15.4 Cellulose Nanocrystals 398

15.5 Aqueous Suspension and Drying of CNCs 408

15.6 Functionalization of CNCs 410

15.7 Processing of CNCs for Biocomposites

15.8 Applications of CNCs-Reinforced Biocomposites 416

15.9 Biomedical Applications 421

15.10 Conclusion 427

Acknowledgements 428

References 428

16 Medical Applications of Cellulose and Its Derivatives: Present and Future 437
Karthika Ammini Sindhu, Raghavan Prasanth and Vijay Kumar Thakur

16.1 Historical Overview 438

16.2 Use of Cellulose for Treatment of Renal Failure 439

16.3 Types of Membranes  444

16.4 Use of Cellulose for Wound Dressing 447

16.5 Cotton as Wound Dressing Material 448

16.6 Biosynthesis, Structure and Properties of MC 450

16.7 MC as a Wound Healing System 451

16.8 Microbial Cellulose/Ag Nanocomposite 456

16.9 Nanocomposites of Microbial Cellulose and Chitosan 458

16.10 Commercialization of Microbial Cellulose 461

16.11 Use of Cellulose as Implant Material 462

16.12 Dental Applications 470

Conclusions 471

Abbreviations 472

Symbols 472

References 473

17 Bacterial Cellulose and Its Multifunctional Composites: Synthesis and Properties 479
V. Thiruvengadam and Satish Vitta

17.1 Introduction 479

17.2 Magnetic Composites 485

17.3 Composites with Catalytic Activity 489

17.4 Electrically Conducting Composites 492

17.5 Composites as Fuel Cell Components, Electrodes and Membrane 496

17.6 Optically Transparent and Mechanically Flexible Composites 499

17.7 Summary and Outlook 502

References 502