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Nanocellulose and Nanohydrogel Matrices: Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications

Nanocellulose and Nanohydrogel Matrices: Biotechnological and Biomedical Applications

Mohammad Jawaid (Editor), Faruq Mohammad (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-80385-9

May 2017

350 pages



This first book on nanocellulose and nanohydrogels for biomedical applications is unique in discussing recent advancements in the field, resulting in a comprehensive, well-structured overview of nanocellulose and nanohydrogel materials based nanocomposites.
The book covers different types of nanocellulose materials and their recent developments in the drug delivery and nanomedicine sector, along with synthesis, characterization, as well as applications in the biotechnological and biomedical fields. The book also covers the current status and future perspectives of bacterial cellulose and polyester hydrogel matrices, their preparation, characterization, and tissue engineering applications of water soluble hydrogel matrices obtained from biodegradable sources. In addition, the chitosan-based hydrogel and nanogel matrices, their involvement in the current biofabrication technologies, and influencing factors towards the biomedical sector of biosensors, biopharmaceuticals, tissue engineering appliances, implant materials, diagnostic probes and surgical aids are very well documented. Further, the history of cellulose-based and conducting polymer-based nanohydrogels, their classification, synthesis methods and applicability to different sectors, the challenges associated with their use, recent advances on the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins are also included. The recent developments and applications in the drug delivery sector gives an overview of facts about the nanofibrillated cellulose and copoly(amino acid) hydrogel matrices in the biotechnology and biomedicine field. This book serves as an essential reference for researchers and academics in chemistry, pharmacy, microbiology, materials science and biomedical engineering.

List of Contributors xvii

1 Application of Nanocellulose for Controlled Drug Delivery 1
Lalduhsanga Pachuau

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Biodegradability, Cytotoxicity, and Cellular Internalization of Nanocellulose 3

1.3 Nanocellulose in Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery 5

1.4 Nanocellulose in Microparticulate Drug Delivery 8

1.5 Nanocellulose in Tablet Formulations 10

1.6 Aerogel Systems 10

1.7 Hydrogels 11

1.8 Nanocellulose in Transdermal Drug Delivery 13

2 Bacterial Cellulose and Polyester Hydrogel Matrices in Biotechnology and Biomedicine: Current Status and Future Prospects 21
Rajnikant Borkar, Sanghratna S. Waghmare, and Tanvir Arfin

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Chemical Structure of Cellulose 21

2.3 Types of Cellulose 21

2.4 Bacterial Cellulose 22

2.5 Chemical Structure of BC 22

2.6 History of BC 23

2.7 Biosynthesis of Bacterial Cellulose 23

2.8 Properties 23

2.9 Present Status of BC 28

2.10 Applications 29

2.11 Future Prospects 33

2.12 Polyester Hydrogels 33

2.13 Chemical Structure of Hydrogels 33

2.14 Types of Hydrogels 34

2.15 Properties of Hydrogels 34

2.16 Historical Background of Polyester Hydrogels 36

2.17 Recent Developments of Polyester Hydrogels 37

2.18 Applications of Polyester Hydrogels 38

3 Bacterial Nanocellulose Applications for Tissue Engineering 47
Muhammed Lamin Sanyang, Naheed Saba, Mohammad Jawaid,Faruq Mohammad, and Mohd Sapuan Salit

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Cellulose 47

3.3 Nanocellulose and Its Types 50

3.4 Isolation and Preparation of Bacterial Cellulose 53

3.5 BC Properties for Tissue Engineering Applications 54

3.6 Tissue Engineering Applications 58

4 Cellulose-Based Nanohydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications 67
Kalyani Prusty and Sarat K. Swain

4.1 Introduction 67

4.2 Preparation of Hydrogels/Cellulosic Hydrogels 69

4.3 Characterization of Hydrogels/Cellulosic Hydrogels 71

4.4 Properties of Hydrogels 76

4.5 Cellulose-Based Nanohydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications 81

5 Chitosan-Mediated Layer-by-Layer Assembling Approach for the Fabrication of Biomedical Probes and Advancement of Nanomedicine 91
Faruq Mohammad and Hamad A. Al]Lohedan

5.1 Introduction 91

5.2 Chitosan for Biofabrication 92

5.3 Derivatization of Chitosan 94

5.4 Chitosan-Mediated Biofabrication: Different Shapes and LBL Assembly 96

5.5 Chitosan-Mediated Assembly of Biomedical Probes and Devices 100

5.6 Factors Influencing the Characteristics of Chitosan toward Biomedical Applications 109

5.7 Summary and Conclusion 115

6 Hydrogels Based on Nanocellulose and Chitosane: Preparation, Characterization, and Properties 125
Meriem Fardioui, Abou el kacem Qaiss, and Rachid Bouhfid

6.1 Introduction 125

6.2 Polymeric Aerogels 126

6.3 Chitosan and Functionalized Chitosan Hydrogels 131

6.4 Biopolymeric Aerogels in Biomedical Applications 134

7 Cellulose Nanocrystals and PEO/PET Hydrogel Material in Biotechnology and Biomedicine: Current Status and Future Prospects 139
Shoeb Athar, Rani Bushra, and Tanvir Arfin

7.1 Introduction 139

7.2 Cellulose Nanocrystals 140

7.3 Polyethylene Oxide (PEO)/Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Hydrogel 155

8 Conducting Polymer Hydrogels: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications for Biosensors 175
Yu Zhao

8.1 Introduction 175

8.2 Synthesis and Processing of CPHs 177

8.3 CPHs for Electrochemical Biosensors 182

8.4 Conclusion 200

9 Nanocellulose and Nanogels as Modern Drug Delivery Systems 209
Misu Moscovici, Cristina Hlevca, Angela Casarica, and Ramona]Daniela Pavaloiu

9.1 Introduction 209

9.2 Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Systems 210

9.3 Nanocelluloses 212

9.4 Nanogels 223

10 Recent Advances on Inhibitors of Apoptosis Proteins (IAP) Particularly with Reference to Patents 271
Riyaz Syed, Prema L. Mallipeddi, Syed Mohammed Ali Hussaini, Rahul V. Patel, A. Prasanth Saraswati, and Ahmed Kamal

10.1 Introduction 271

10.2 Patent Assessments 275

10.3 Other Heterocyclics as IAPs 279

11 Nanohydrogels: History, Development, and Applications in Drug Delivery 297
Muhammad Akram and Rafaqat Hussain

11.1 Introduction 297

11.2 History 297

11.3 Classification of Hydrogels Based on the Type of Cross-Link Junctions 301

11.4 Classification of Hydrogels Based on Properties 305

11.5 Classification of Interpenetrating Network Hydrogels 307

11.6 Classification Based on Source 309

11.7 Properties of Hydrogels 309

11.8 Nanohydrogels and Their Applications 313

12 Nanofibrillated Cellulose and Copoly(amino acid) Hydrogel Matrices in Biotechnology and Biomedicine 331
Azhar U. Khan, Nazia Malik, and Tanvir Arfin

12.1 History and Background of Celluloses 331

12.2 Structure of Cellulose 331

12.3 Nanocelluloses 333

12.4 Hydrogels 340

Index 353