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Nanoimprint Technology: Nanotransfer for Thermoplastic and Photocurable Polymers

Nanoimprint Technology: Nanotransfer for Thermoplastic and Photocurable Polymers

Jun Taniguchi (Editor), Hiroshi Ito (Editor), Jun Mizuno (Editor), Takushi Saito (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-53506-6

Jun 2013

240 pages



Nanoscale pattern transfer technology using molds is a rapidly advancing area and one that has seen much recent attention due to its potential for use in nanotechnology industries and applications. However, because of these rapid advances, it can be difficult to keep up with the technological trends and the latest cutting-edge methods. In order to fully understand these pioneering technologies, a comprehensive understanding of the basic science and an overview of the techniques are required.

Nanoimprint Technology: Nanotransfer for Thermoplastic and Photocurable Polymers covers the latest nanotransfer science based on polymer behaviour. Polymer fluid dynamics are described in detail, and injection moulding, nanoimprint lithography and micro contact printing are also discussed. Cutting-edge nanotransfer technologies and applications are also considered and future trends in industry are examined.

Key features:
• Covers the fundamentals of nanoimprint technology
• Presents cutting-edge techniques and applications
• Provides industrial examples and describes the mold fabrication process
• Considers nanotransfer of thermoplastics by simulation
• Describes the design and evaluation of UV curable polymer

Nanoimprint Technology: Nanotransfer for Thermoplastic and Photocurable Polymers is a comprehensive reference for industry engineers as well as graduate and undergraduate students, and is a useful source of information for anyone looking to improve their understanding of nanotransfer mechanisms and methods.

About of Editors ix

List of Contributors xi

Series Preface xiii

Preface xv

1 What is a Nanoimprint? 1

Jun Taniguchi

References 6

2 Nanoimprint Lithography: Background and Related Techniques 9

Hiroshi Ito(1) and Takushi Saito

2.1 History of Material Processing: Polymer Processing 9

2.2 Products with Microstructure and Nanostructure 11

2.3 Technology for Making Micro- and Nanostructures 12

References 15

3 Nanopattern Transfer Technology of Thermoplastic Materials 17

Takushi Saito and Hiroshi Ito(1)

3.1 Behavior of Thermoplastic Materials 17

3.1.1 Thermoplastics 17

3.1.2 Basis of Viscoelasticity and Rheology 19

3.1.3 Measurement of Rheology 20

3.1.4 Physical Properties of Viscoelastic Materials and the Temperature–Time Superposition Principle 21

3.1.5 Materials Design for Realizing Nanoimprints 24

3.2 Applicable Processes Used for Nanopattern Transfer 25

3.2.1 Introduction of Injection Molding Process 25

3.2.2 Problems of the Injection Molding Process 28

3.2.3 Advantages of the Thermal Imprinting Process 29

3.3 Pattern Transfer Mechanism of Thermal Cycle NIL 30

3.3.1 Introduction of Thermal Imprinting Process 30

3.3.2 In-situ Observation of Thermal Imprinting Process 32

3.3.3 Offline Measurement of Replication Process in Thermal Cycle NIL 35

3.4 Modeling of Nanopattern Transfer 38

3.4.1 Importance of Viscosity in Thermal Imprinting Process 38

3.4.2 Mathematical Treatment in Injection Molding and Thermal Imprinting Process 41

3.4.3 Process Simulation in Micro- and Nanopattern Transfer 44

References 48

Mold Fabrication Process 51

Mitsunori Kokubo, Gaku Suzuki, and Masao Otaki

4.1 Ultra Precision Cutting Techniques Applied to Metal Molds Fabrication for Nanoimprint Lithography 51

4.1.1 Introduction 51

4.1.2 Cutting of Fine Groove Shape 52

4.1.3 Method of Cutting Groove 53

4.1.4 Precision Cutting of Cylindrical Material 55

4.1.5 High-speed, Ultra Precision Machining System 56

4.1.6 Fine Pattern Processing by Bit Map Data 58

4.1.7 Machining of Dot Pattern Array 58

4.1.8 Improvement Points of the System 61

4.1.9 Summary 62

4.2 Nanoimprint Mold Fabrication Using Photomask Technology 62

4.2.1 Introduction 62

4.2.2 Summary of Mold Manufacturing Process 63

4.2.3 Pattern Writing Technique 67

4.2.4 Dry Etching 81

4.2.5 Examples of Fabricated Mold 85

4.2.6 Summary 89

5 Ultraviolet Nanoimprint Lithography 91

Jun Taniguchi, Noriyuki Unno, Hidetoshi Shinohara, Jun Mizuno, Hiroshi Goto, Nobuji Sakai, Kentaro Tsunozaki, Hiroto Miyake, Norio Yoshino, and Kenichi Kotaki

5.1 Orientation and Background of UV-NIL 91

5.2 Transfer Mechanism of UV-NIL 95

5.2.1 Viscosity and Capillary Force 96

5.2.2 Release Coating and Evaluation

of Release Properties 100

5.2.3 Release Coating Effect 103

5.3 UV-NIL Materials and Equipment 106

5.3.1 Ubiquitous NIL Machines 106

5.3.2 UV Nanoimprint Process Tool 110

5.3.3 UV-photocurable Resin 115

5.3.4 Fluorinated Polymers for UV-NIL 121

5.3.5 Cationic Curable Resins for UV-NIL 126

5.3.6 Molding Agents for Nanoimprinting 137

5.4 Evaluation Method 143

5.4.1 Macro Evaluation Technique of Nanoscale Pattern Shape and Evaluation Device 143

5.4.2 Characterization of Photocurable Resin for UV Nanoimprint 149

References 165

6 Applications and Leading-Edge Technology 169

Jun Taniguchi, Hidetoshi Shinohara, Jun Mizuno, Mitsunori Kokubo, Kazutoshi Yakemoto, and Hiroshi Ito(2)

6.1 Advanced Nanoimprinting Technologies 169

6.1.1 Resolution Limit of Nanoimprint Lithography 170

6.1.2 Improved Nanoimprinting Technologies 172

6.1.3 Roll-to-Roll Nanoimprinting Technologies 174

6.2 Applications 175

6.2.1 Seamless Pattern 175

6.2.2 Multistep Cu Interconnection 177

6.2.3 GaN Nanostructures for High-Intensity LED 182

6.3 High-Accuracy Nanoimprint Technology, Development of Micropatterning Method, and Automatic Process Control Using Batch Press Type, Step and Repeat Type Nanoimprint Machine 186

6.3.1 Introduction 186

6.3.2 Thermal Imprint 186

6.3.3 Summary 194

6.4 Micro/Nano Melt Transcription Molding Process 195

6.4.1 Outline of the Melt Transcription Molding Process 195

6.4.2 High Transcriptability 196

6.4.3 Excellent Optical Properties 200

6.4.4 Melt Transcription Molding System ‘‘MTM100-15’’ 201

Future Trends 202

References 203