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Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites: Zero- to Three-Dimensional Materials and Their Composites

Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites: Zero- to Three-Dimensional Materials and Their Composites

Visakh P. M., María José Martínez Morlanes

ISBN: 978-3-527-33780-4

Jun 2016

456 pages

In Stock

$230.00

Description

Nanomaterials are defined as materials in which at least one length dimension is below 100 nanometers. In this size regime, these materials exhibit particular - and tunable - optical, electrical or mechanical properties that are not present at the macro-scale. This opens up the possibility for a plethora of applications at the interface of materials, chemistry, physics and biology, many of which have already entered the commercial realm. When nanomaterials are blended with other materials not necessarily in the nanometer regime, the resulting nanocomposites can exhibit dramatically different properties than the bulk material alone, leading to an enhanced performance in terms of, for example, increased thermal and mechanical stability.

This book presents the synthesis, characterization and applications of nanomaterials and nanocomposites, covering zero-dimensional, elemental nanoparticles, one-dimensional materials such as nanorods and nanowhiskers, two-dimensional materials such as graphene and boron nitride as well as three-dimensional materials such as fullerenes, polyhedral oligomers and zeolites, complemented by bio-based nanomaterials, e.g., cellulose, chitin, starch  and proteins. Introductory chapters on the state-of-the-art of nanomaterial research and the chemistry and physics in nanoscience and nanotechnology round off the book.

List of Contributors XV

1 Introduction for Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites: State of Art, New Challenges, and Opportunities 1
P. M. Visakh

1.1 Chemistry of Nanoscience and Technology 1

1.2 Carbon Nanotubes andTheir Nanocomposites 2

1.3 Graphene- and Graphene Sheets-Based Nanocomposites 3

1.4 Nanocomposites of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) andTheir Applications 4

1.5 Zeolites and Composites 6

1.6 Mesoporous Materials and Their Nanocomposites 7

1.7 Bio-Based Nanomaterials and Their Bio-Nanocomposites 9

1.8 Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs) andTheir Composites 10

1.9 Modeling Methods for Modulus of Polymer/Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Nanocomposites 12

1.10 Nanocomposites Based on Cellulose, Hemicelluloses, and Lignin 13

References 15

2 Chemistry of Nanoscience and Technology 21
Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan, Anish Khan, and Abdullah M. Asiri

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Nano 22

2.3 Nanomaterials 24

2.4 Quantum Materials 25

2.4.1 Classification of Superconductor 26

2.4.1.1 Response to a Magnetic Field 26

2.4.1.2 ByTheory of Operation 27

2.4.1.3 By Critical Temperature 27

2.4.1.4 By Material 27

2.4.1.5 Fullerene 28

2.5 Forces and Bonding of Nanomaterials 29

2.5.1 Hydrogen-Bonding Assemblies 29

2.5.2 π–π Stacking Assemblies 31

2.5.3 Assemblies by Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Interactions 33

2.5.4 Metal–Ligand Interactions 36

2.5.5 Other Methods for Construction Nanomaterials 39

2.6 Zero-Dimensional Nanomaterials 40

2.7 One-Dimensional Nanomaterials 42

2.8 Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials 47

2.9 Challenges in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 54

2.9.1 Challenges for Technological 54

2.9.2 Challenges and Research for the Social Cluster 54

2.9.3 The World Is Facing a Water Crisis 55

2.10 Applications of Nanoscience and Technology 59

2.10.1 Personal Care Products 59

2.10.2 Clays 60

2.10.3 Paints 60

2.10.4 Coatings and Surfaces 60

2.10.5 Renewable Energy 61

2.10.6 Batteries 61

2.10.7 Fuel Additives 61

2.10.8 Fuel Cells 62

2.10.9 Displays 62

2.10.10 Catalysts 62

2.10.11 Food 63

2.10.12 Consumer Products 63

2.10.13 Sports 63

2.10.14 Lubricants 64

2.10.15 Carbon Nanotube 64

2.10.16 Nanosensors 64

2.10.17 Magnetic Materials 66

2.10.18 Medical Implants 66

2.10.19 Machinable Ceramics 66

2.10.20 Elimination of Pollutants 67

2.10.21 Water Purification 67

2.10.22 Textiles 67

2.10.23 Military Battle Suits 68

2.11 Conclusion 68

References 69

3 Carbon Nanotubes and Their Nanocomposites 75
Sónia Simões, Filomena Viana, and Manuel F. Vieira

3.1 Carbon Nanotubes 75

3.1.1 Introduction 75

3.1.2 Structure of Carbon Nanotubes 76

3.1.3 Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 79

3.2 Carbon Nanotubes as Nanomaterials 81

3.2.1 Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes 81

3.2.2 Chemical Modifications of Carbon Nanotubes 86

3.2.3 Physical Modifications of Carbon Nanotubes 87

3.3 Carbon Nanotubes Based Nanocomposites 89

3.3.1 Interfacial Interaction of Carbon Nanotubes in Nanocomposites 96

3.4 Conclusion 100

Acknowledgments 101

References 101

4 Graphene and Graphene Sheets Based Nanocomposites 107
Anish Khan, Aftab Aslam Parwaz Khan, and AbdullahM. Asiri

4.1 Introduction 107

4.1.1 Structure of Graphene and Graphene Sheets 107

4.1.2 Properties of Graphene and Graphene Sheets 110

4.1.2.1 Electronic Properties 110

4.1.2.2 Mechanical Properties 110

4.1.2.3 Optical Properties 111

4.1.2.4 Raman Spectroscopy of Graphene 112

4.1.3 Synthesis of Graphene and Graphene Sheets 112

4.1.3.1 Exfoliation 113

4.1.3.2 Epitaxial on Silicon Carbide 116

4.1.3.3 Chemical Vapor Deposition 116

4.1.3.4 Chemical Synthesis 118

4.1.4 Chemical Modifications of Graphene and Graphene Sheets 118

4.1.5 Physical Modifications of Graphene and Graphene Sheets 120

4.2 Graphene and Graphene Sheets Based Nanocomposites 121

4.2.1 Graphene and Graphene Sheets/Rubber Based Nanocomposites Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 123

4.2.2 Graphene and Graphene Sheets/Thermoplastic Based Nanocomposites Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 127

4.2.3 Graphene and Graphene Sheets/Thermoset Based Nanocomposites Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 129

4.2.3.1 Characterization of GO, PI, and PI/GO Nanocomposites 130

4.2.4 Interfacial Interaction of Graphene and Graphene Sheets in Nanocomposites 133

4.3 Graphene and Graphene Sheets inThermoplastic Based Blends Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 135

4.4 Graphene and Graphene Sheets in Rubber–Rubber Blends Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 138

4.5 Graphene and Graphene Sheets Based Micro and Macro Composites 143

4.6 Conclusion 144

References 145

5 Nanocomposites of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) and Their Applications 151
Dhorali Gnanasekaran

5.1 Introduction 151

5.1.1 Nanocomposites 151

5.1.2 How Nanocomposites Work? 154

5.1.3 Applications 154

5.1.4 Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) 154

5.1.5 Hybrid Properties 156

5.1.6 Polymer Nanocomposites 157

5.1.7 Hybrid Nanocomposites from Silsesquioxane Monomers 159

5.1.7.1 Polyamide-POSS Hybrid Nanocomposites 159

5.1.7.2 Poly(urethane-imide) POSS Hybrid Nanocomposites (PUI-POSS) 165

5.1.8 Range of Other POSS Nanocomposites 170

5.1.8.1 Blends of POSS Nanocomposites 171

5.1.8.2 Bridged Polysilsesquioxanes 173

5.2 Advantages of POSS Nanocomposites 174

5.3 Applications 175

5.3.1 Gas Separation Studies 175

5.3.2 Aerospace Industry 175

5.3.3 Electric Applications 177

5.3.4 Other Applications 178

5.4 Conclusions 179

References 179

6 Zeolites and Composites 187
G. Gnana kumar

6.1 Introduction 187

6.2 Progress of Zeolite Materials 189

6.2.1 Natural Zeolites 189

6.2.2 Artificially Synthesized Zeolites 190

6.2.3 Low-Silica Zeolites 190

6.2.4 High-Silica Zeolites 190

6.3 Classification of Zeolites 191

6.3.1 Classification Based on the Pore Structure 191

6.3.1.1 Microporous Zeolites 191

6.3.1.2 Mesoporous Zeolites 191

6.3.2 Classification Based on Structural Building Units 192

6.3.2.1 Primary Building Unit (PBU) 192

6.3.2.2 Secondary Building Unit (SBU) 192

6.3.2.3 Sodalite Cage Building Units 192

6.3.3 Classification Based on the Ring Structure 193

6.3.4 Classification Based on Si/Al Ratio 193

6.3.5 Classification of Zeolites Based on the Crystal Structure 194

6.4 Molecular Sieves 194

6.5 Synthesis of Zeolites 197

6.5.1 History of Zeolite Synthesis 197

6.5.2 Conventional Synthesis Approaches 197

6.5.2.1 Hydrothermal Synthesis 197

6.5.2.2 Solvothermal Synthesis 198

6.5.3 Green Approaches 199

6.5.3.1 Ionothermal Synthesis 199

6.5.3.2 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis 199

6.5.4 Recent Synthesis Approaches 200

6.5.4.1 Dry Gel Conversion 200

6.5.4.2 Synthesis of Zeolites under Microgravity Environment 201

6.5.5 Droplet-Based Synthesis Method 201

6.5.5.1 Microemulsion-Based Synthesis 201

6.5.5.2 Droplet-Microfluid Synthesis 202

6.5.6 Other Synthesis Approaches 202

6.5.6.1 Seed-Induced Synthesis 202

6.5.6.2 Centrifugation-Assisted Grinding 203

6.5.7 Zeolite Composites 203

6.5.7.1 Ex situ Composite Formation 203

6.5.7.2 In situ Composite Formation 204

6.6 Properties 204

6.6.1 Physical Properties 204

6.6.1.1 Thermal Properties 204

6.6.1.2 Hydrophobicity 205

6.6.1.3 Optical Properties 205

6.6.1.4 Electrical Properties 205

6.6.1.5 Magnetic Properties 206

6.6.1.6 Pore Properties 206

6.6.2 Chemical Properties 206

6.6.2.1 Basicity 206

6.6.2.2 Adsorption 207

6.6.2.3 Ion-Exchange 207

6.7 Applications 208

6.7.1 Fuel Cells 208

6.7.2 Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) 209

6.7.3 Batteries 210

6.7.4 Oil Refining 211

6.7.5 Photocatalysts 212

6.7.6 Hydrogen (H2) Storage 213

6.7.7 CO2 Capture 214

6.8 Future Perspectives of Zeolites and Their Composites 214

6.9 Conclusion 216

References 216

7 Mesoporous Materials and Their Nanocomposites 223
Vijay K. Tomer, Sunita Devi, Ritu Malik, and Surender Duhan

7.1 Introduction of Mesoporous Materials 223

7.2 IUPAC Classification of Porous Materials 224

7.3 Synthesis Pathways for the Formation of Mesoporous Materials 225

7.4 Role of Structure Directing Agents/Surfactants 225

7.4.1 Lyotropic Liquid Crystals (LLCs) 227

7.5 Type of Surfactants 229

7.5.1 Charged Surfactant Template 229

7.5.2 Neutral Surfactant Templates 230

7.6 Role of Templates 231

7.6.1 Soft Templates 231

7.6.2 Hard Templates 231

7.7 Types of Mesoporous Materials: Structure and Properties 232

7.7.1 Mesoporous Silica 232

7.7.1.1 M41S Materials 233

7.7.1.2 SBA-X Materials 235

7.7.2 Mesoporous Metal Oxides 237

7.7.3 Mesoporous Carbon 238

7.7.4 Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Mesoporous Materials 240

7.7.4.1 Inorganic Support Material: Silica 241

7.8 Chemical Modification of Mesoporous Materials: Functionalization 243

7.8.1 Grafting Method 243

7.8.2 Co-condensation Method 244

7.9 Mesoporous Silica/Polymer Nanocomposites 244

7.10 Mesoporous Carbon/Polymer Nanocomposites 247

7.11 Mesoporous Silica/Metal (Oxides) Nanocomposites 248

7.12 Applications 248

7.12.1 Drug Delivery 248

7.12.2 Adsorption 249

7.12.3 Catalysis 249

7.12.4 Sensors 250

7.13 Conclusion and Outlook 250

References 252

8 Bio-based Nanomaterials and Their Bionanocomposites 255
Dipali R. Bagal-Kestwal, Rakesh M. Kestwal, and Been H. Chiang

8.1 Introduction for Bio-based Nanomaterials 255

8.2 Cellulose 256

8.2.1 Structure and Properties of Cellulose 257

8.2.1.1 Biological Function of Cellulose 258

8.2.1.2 Industrial Application of Cellulose 259

8.2.2 Origin of Cellulose 259

8.2.3 Cellulose Nanomaterials 260

8.2.3.1 Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 261

8.2.3.2 Synthesis and Isolation of Cellulose Nanoparticles 261

8.2.3.3 Characterization and Properties of Nanocellulose 263

8.2.4 Cellulose Nanocomposites 270

8.2.4.1 Nanocomposites Preparations 271

8.2.4.2 NWNanocomposites 272

8.2.4.3 NFC Nanocompostites 275

8.2.4.4 Characterization and Applications of Nanocomposites 276

8.3 Chitin/Chitosan 276

8.3.1 Structure and Properties of Chitin/Chitosan 277

8.3.1.1 Physico-Chemical Properties of Chitin/Chitosan 278

8.3.1.2 Biological Properties of Chitin/Chitosan 278

8.3.1.3 Applications of Chitin/Chitosan 278

8.3.2 Origin of Chitin/Chitosan 279

8.3.3 Chitin Nanomaterials: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 279

8.3.4 Chitin Nanocomposites: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 282

8.4 Starch 287

8.4.1 Structure and Properties of Starch 287

8.4.2 Origin of Starch 287

8.4.3 Starch Nanoparticles: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 288

8.4.3.1 Emulsion/Homogenization 289

8.4.3.2 Nanoprecipitation 289

8.4.3.3 Acid Hydrolysis 290

8.4.3.4 Ultrasonication 290

8.4.3.5 Schiff Base Reaction 290

8.4.3.6 Starch Nanocrystals (StNCs) 290

8.4.3.7 Preparation of StNCs 291

8.4.3.8 Applications of Starch Nanoparticles 292

8.4.4 Starch Nanocomposites (StNCs): Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 293

8.5 Soy Protein Isolate (SPI) 294

8.5.1 Structure and Properties of SPI 295

8.5.2 Origin of Soy Protein Isolate 295

8.5.3 SPI Nanomaterials: Preparations, Characterization, and Applications 295

8.5.4 SPI Nanocomposites: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 297

8.6 Casein (CAS) 299

8.6.1 Structure and Properties of Casein Nanomaterials 299

8.6.2 Origin of Casein 300

8.6.3 Casein Nanomaterials: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 301

8.6.3.1 Casein Nanosized Micelles/Nanocapsules 301

8.6.3.2 Casein Nanogels 302

8.6.3.3 Casein-Polyelectrolyte Complex Nanoparticles 302

8.6.3.4 Characterization of Nanoparticles 303

8.6.4 Casein Nanocomposites: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 304

8.7 Alginates 307

8.7.1 Structure and Properties 307

8.7.2 Origin of Alginates 308

8.7.3 Alginates Nanomaterials: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 308

8.7.4 Alginates Nanocomposites: Preparation, Characterization, and Applications 309

8.8 Other Polymers 312

8.8.1 Gelatin/Collagen 312

8.8.2 Whey Protein 313

8.9 Conclusions 313

List of abbreviations 315

References 316

9 Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) and Its Composites 331
Ali Morsali and Lida Hashemi

9.1 Composites 332

9.1.1 MOF-Organic Matrix Composites 332

9.1.2 MOF-Inorganic Matrix Composites 334

9.1.3 Composites of MOFs with Graphite Oxide 335

9.1.4 Composites of MOFs with Functionalized Graphite 338

9.1.5 Composites of MOFs with Carbon Nanotubes 341

9.1.6 Composites of MOFs with Polymers 345

9.1.6.1 Hybrids of MIL-101 and Phosphotungstic Acid (MIL101/PTA) 347

9.1.6.2 Reaction Catalysis by MIL-101 and MIL101/PTA Composites 348

9.1.7 Composites of MOFs with Mesoporous Silica and Alumina 351

9.1.8 Composites of MOFs with Metal Nanoparticles 358

9.1.9 Composites of MOFs with Silk 360

References 365

10 Modeling Methods for Modulus of Polymer/Carbon nanotube (CNT) Nanocomposites 367
Yasser Zare and Hamid Garmabi

10.1 Introduction 367

10.2 Results and Discussion 369

10.2.1 Molecular Modeling 369

10.2.1.1 Molecular Dynamics (MD) 369

10.2.1.2 Molecular Mechanics (MM) 369

10.2.2 Continuum Methods 369

10.2.2.1 Computational Continuum Modeling 370

10.2.2.2 Micromechanics Models 371

10.2.3 Multiscale Techniques 380

10.3 Conclusions and Future Challenges 383

References 383

11 Nanocomposites Based on Cellulose, Hemicelluloses, and Lignin 391
Diana Elena Ciolacu and Raluca Nicoleta Darie

11.1 Introduction 391

11.2 Cellulose 392

11.2.1 Morphology and Structural Aspects of Cellulose 392

11.2.2 Preparation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanoparticles (CNs) 395

11.2.2.1 Nanofibrillated Cellulose (NFC) 395

11.2.2.2 Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs) 399

11.2.2.3 Bacterial Nanocellulose (BNC) 402

11.2.3 Cellulose Nanocomposites 402

11.2.4 Applications of Nanocellulose 404

11.3 Hemicellulose 405

11.3.1 Methods for the Isolation of Hemicellulose 406

11.3.2 Preparation of Nanoparticles from Hemicelluloses 408

11.3.3 Hemicellulose Nanocomposites 409

11.4 Lignin 410

11.4.1 Procedures for Lignin Isolation and Their Properties 410

11.4.2 Lignin-based Nanomaterials and Nanocomposites 411

11.4.3 Applications of Nanomaterials Containing Lignin 413

11.5 Risk Assessment of Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials 414

11.6 Future Perspectives and Conclusions 415

References 416

Index 425

""The book has splendid illustrations, many of them in color, and is written in an accessible manner. It provides a nice account about the revolution of materials happening today. It is recommended to anyone who wants to use materials to enrich optical science."" (Optics & Photonics, 2016)