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Paras N. Prasad

ISBN: 978-0-471-67024-7

Sep 2004

432 pages



The only comprehensive treatment of nanophotonics currently available
Photonics is an all-encompassing optical science and technology which has impacted a diverse range of fields, from information technology to health care. Nanophotonics is photonic science and technology that utilizes light-matter interactions on the nanoscale, where researchers are discovering new phenomena and developing technologies that go well beyond what is possible with conventional photonics and electronics. These new technologies could include efficient solar power generation, high-bandwidth and high-speed communications, high-capacity data storage, and flexible- and high-contrast displays. In addition, nanophotonics will continue to impact biomedical technologies by providing new and powerful diagnostic techniques, as well as light-guided and activated therapies.
Nanophotonics provides the only available comprehensive treatment of this exciting, multidisciplinary field, offering a wide range of topics covering:
* Foundations
* Materials
* Applications
* Theory
* Fabrication
Nanophotonics introduces students to important and timely concepts and provides scientists and engineers with a cutting-edge reference. The book is intended for anyone who wishes to learn about light-matter interactions on the nanoscale, as well as applications of photonics for nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology. Written by an acknowledged leader in the field, this text provides an essential resource for those interested in the future of materials science and engineering, nanotechnology, and photonics.


1. Introduction.

1.1 Nanophotonics—An Exciting Frontier in Nanotechnology.

1.2 Nanophotonics at a Glance.

1.3 Multidisciplinary Education, Training, and Research.

1.4. Rationale for this Book.

1.5 Opportunities for Basic Research and Development of New Technologies.

1.6 Scope of this Book.


2. Foundations for Nanophotonics.

2.1 Photons and Electrons: Similarities and Differences.

2.1.1 Free-Space Propagation.

2.1.2 Confinement of Photons and Electrons.

2.1.3 Propagation Through a Classically Forbidden Zone: Tunneling.

2.1.4 Localization Under a Periodic Potential: Bandgap.

2.1.5 Cooperative Effects for Photons and Electrons.

2.2 Nanoscale Optical Interactions.

2.2.1 Axial Nanoscopic Localization.

2.2.2 Lateral Nanoscopic Localization.

2.3 Nanoscale Confinement of Electronic Interactions.

2.3.1 Quantum Confinement Effects.

2.3.2 Nanoscopic Interaction Dynamics.

2.3.3 New Cooperative Transitions.

2.3.4 Nanoscale Electronic Energy Transfer.

2.3.5 Cooperative Emission.

2.4 Highlights of the Chapter.


3. Near-Field Interaction and Microscopy.

3.1 Near-Field Optics.

3.2 Theoretical Modeling of Near-Field Nanoscopic Interactions.

3.3 Near-Field Microscopy.

3.4 Examples of Near-Field Studies.

3.4.1 Study of Quantum Dots.

3.4.2 Single-Molecule Spectroscopy.

3.4.3 Study of Nonlinear Optical Processes.

3.5 Apertureless Near-Field Spectroscopy and Microscopy.

3.6 Nanoscale Enhancement of Optical Interactions.

3.7 Time- and Space-Resolved Studies of Nanoscale Dynamics.

3.8 Commercially Available Sources for Near-Field Microscope.

3.9 Highlights of the Chapter.


4. Quantum-Confined Materials.

4.1 Inorganic Semiconductors.

4.1.1 Quantum Wells.

4.1.2 Quantum Wires.

4.1.3 Quantum Dots.

4.1.4 Quantum Rings.

4.2 Manifestations of Quantum Confinement.

4.2.1 Optical Properties.

4.2.2 Examples.

4.2.3 Nonlinear Optical Properties.

4.2.4 Quantum-Confined Stark Effect.

4.3 Dielectric Confinement Effect.

4.4 Superlattices.

4.5 Core-Shell Quantum Dots and Quantum Dot-Quantum Wells.

4.6 Quantum-Confined Structures as Lasing Media.

4.7 Organic Quantum-Confined Structures.

4.8 Highlights of the Chapter.


5. Plasmonics.

5.1 Metallic Nanoparticles and Nanorods.

5.2 Metallic Nanoshells.

5.3 Local Field Enhancement.

5.4 Subwavelength Aperture Plasmonics.

5.5 Plasmonic Wave Guiding.

5.6 Applications of Metallic Nanostructures.

5.7 Radiative Decay Engineering.

5.8 Highlights of the Chapter.


6. Nanocontrol of Excitation Dynamics.

6.1 Nanostructure and Excited States.

6.2 Rare-Earth Doped Nanostructures.

6.3 Up-Converting Nanophores.

6.4 Photon Avalanche.

6.5 Quantum Cutting.

6.6 Site Isolating Nanoparticles.

6.7 Highlights of the Chapter.


7. Growth and Characterization of Nanomaterials.

7.1 Growth Methods for Nanomaterials.

7.1.1 Epitaxial Growth.

7.1.2 Laser-Assisted Vapor Deposition (LAVD).

7.1.3 Nanochemistry.

7.2 Characterization of Nanomaterials.

7.2.1 X-Ray Characterization. X-Ray Diffraction. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

7.2.2 Electron Microscopy. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).

7.2.3 Other Electron Beam Techniques.

7.2.4 Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM).

7.3 Highlights of the Chapter.


8. Nanostructured Molecular Architectures.

8.1 Noncovalent Interactions.

8.2 Nanostructured Polymeric Media.

8.3 Molecular Machines.

8.4 Dendrimers.

8.5 Supramolecular Structures.

8.6 Monolayer and Multilayer Molecular Assemblies.

8.7 Highlights of the Chapter.


9. Photonic Crystals.

9.1 Basics Concepts.

9.2 Theoretical Modeling of Photonic Crystals.

9.3 Features of Photonic Crystals.

9.4 Methods of Fabrication.

9.5 Photonic Crystal Optical Circuitry.

9.6 Nonlinear Photonic Crystals.

9.7 Photonic Crystal Fibers (PCF).

9.8 Photonic Crystals and Optical Communications.

9.9 Photonic Crystal Sensors.

9.10 Highlights of the Chapter.


10. Nanocomposites.

10.1 Nanocomposites as Photonic Media.

10.2 Nanocomposite Waveguides.

10.3 Random Lasers: Laser Paints.

10.4 Local Field Enhancement.

10.5 Multiphasic Nanocomposites.

10.6 Nanocomposites for Optoelectronics.

10.7 Polymer-Dispersed Liquid Crystals (PDLC).

10.8 Nanocomposite Metamaterials.

10.9 Highlights of the Chapter.


11. Nanolithography.

11.1 Two-Photon Lithography.

11.2 Near-Field Lithography.

11.3 Near-Field Phase-Mask Soft Lithography.

11.4 Plasmon Printing.

11.5 Nanosphere Lithography.

11.6 Dip-Pen Nanolithography.

11.7 Nanoimprint Lithography.

11.8 Photonically Aligned Nanoarrays.

11.9 Highlights of the Chapter.


12. Biomaterials and Nanophotonics.

12.1 Bioderived Materials.

12.2 Bioinspired Materials.

12.3 Biotemplates.

12.4 Bacteria as Biosynthesizers.

12.5 Highlights of the Chapter.


13. Nanophotonics for Biotechnology and Nanomedicine.

13.1 Near-Field Bioimaging.

13.2 Nanoparticles for Optical Diagnostics and Targeted Therapy.

13.3 Semiconductor Quantum Dots for Bioimaging.

13.4 Up-Converting Nanophores for Bioimaging.

13.5 Biosensing.

13.6 Nanoclinics for Optical Diagnostics and Targeted Therapy.

13.7 Nanoclinic Gene Delivery.

13.8 Nanoclinics for Photodynamic Therapy.

13.9 Highlights of the Chapter.


14. Nanophotonics and the Marketplace.

14.1 Nanotechnology, Lasers, and Photonics.

14.1.1 Nanonetchnology.

14.1.2 Worldwide Laser Sales.

14.1.3 Photonics.

14.1.4 Nanophotonics.

14.2 Optical Nanomaterials.

14.2.1 Nanoparticle Coatings.

14.2.2 Sunscreen Nanoparticles.

14.2.3 Self-Cleaning Glass.

14.2.4 Fluorescent Quantum Dots.

14.2.5 Nanobarcodes.

14.2.6 Photonic Crystals.

14.2.7 Photonic Crystal Fibers.

14.3 Quantum-Confined Lasers.

14.4 Near-Field Microscopy.

14.5 Nanolithography.

14.6 Future Outlook for Nanophotonics.

14.6.1 Power Generation and Conversion.

14.6.2 Information Technology.

14.6.3 Sensor Technology.

14.6.4 Nanomedicine.

14.7 Highlights of the Chapter.



""...belongs in the personal library of every researcher who is interested in entering the field...if 'Nanophotonics' had not already existed, it would have been necessary to write it."" (Journal of the American Chemical Society, October 12, 2005)

""…a blend of textbook, reference work and a very readable assessment of new applications…will likely be the seminal work in this field for some time."" (E-STREAMS, September 2005)

""...Prasad provides his readers with an introductory-level, multifaceted description of the field."" (Journal of Biomedical Optics, May/June 2005)

""Paras Prasad has once again produced an invaluable reference source related to indispensable reference text for anyone endeavoring to learn or teach photonics…"" (Physics Today, March 2005)

""The book is well written and well illustrated, covers all the important concepts, and gives the right references. It is an invaluable single resource of information on nanophotonics.” (Journal of Metals Online, September 1, 2004)