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Nanosponges: Synthesis and Applications

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Nanosponges: Synthesis and Applications

Francesco Trotta (Editor), Andrea Mele (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-34101-6 February 2019 350 Pages

Description

An excellent overview of the field, covering in detail a wide range of different types of constituent materials, such as polymers, metals and metal oxides. It discusses their production and synthetic routes, as well as applications in several areas, including catalysis, drug delivery and environmental science.
A must-have for scientists in academia and industry, as well as a valuable resource for both newcomers and more established researchers working in the field.

Preface xi

1 Nanomaterials: Classification and Properties 1
Francesco Trotta and Andrea Mele

1.1 Nanomaterial Classifications 1

1.2 Nanomaterial Peculiarities 6

1.3 Manufacturing of Nanomaterials 13

1.4 Nanomaterials and Health Concerns 15

1.5 Legislation on Nanomaterials 17

1.6 ISO Classification and Standards 19

1.7 EPA Regulatory Approach for Nanomaterials and Manufacturing 23

References 24

2 Cyclodextrin Nanosponges 27
Shankar Swaminathan and Francesco Trotta

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Nanosponge Evolution, Synthesis, and Characterization 35

2.3 Synthetic Routes for Different Types of Nanosponges 35

2.3.1 Cyclodextrin-Based Urethane/Carbamate Nanosponges 35

2.3.2 Cyclodextrin-Based Carbonate Nanosponges 35

2.3.3 Cyclodextrin-Based Ester Nanosponges 42

2.3.4 Cyclodextrin-Based Ether Nanosponges 44

2.3.5 Functionalized Nanosponges 44

2.3.6 Stimuli-Sensitive Nanosponges 45

2.3.7 Molecularly Imprinted Nanosponge Polymers 46

2.4 Synthetic Processes for Nanosponges 46

2.4.1 Solvent-Based Synthesis 46

2.4.2 Fusion/Melt-Based Synthesis 46

2.4.3 Ultrasound-Aided Synthesis 46

2.4.4 Microwave-Assisted Synthesis 46

2.5 Characterization of Nanosponges 47

2.6 Applications of Nanosponges 47

2.6.1 Smart Fabrics 49

2.6.2 Agricultural Applications 49

2.6.3 Water Purification 50

2.6.4 Catalysis Applications 50

2.6.5 Other Applications 51

2.7 Future Perspectives and Conclusions 51

References 52

3 Metal-organic Framework Sponges 59
Sigurd Øien-Ødegaard, Greig C. Shearer, Karl P. Lillerud, and Silvia Bordiga

3.1 Introduction 59

3.2 Definition of Metal-organic Framework 59

3.2.1 Historical Background 60

3.2.2 Reticular Chemistry 62

3.2.3 Synthesis and Solvent Removal 65

3.2.4 Flexible MOFs 68

3.2.5 MOFs from Renewable Resources 72

3.3 Applications 74

3.3.1 Gas Adsorption 75

3.3.2 Catalysis 80

3.4 UiO-66 82

3.4.1 Structure 82

3.4.2 Porosity 83

3.4.3 Structural Dehydration 83

3.4.4 Stability 84

3.4.5 Related Materials 85

3.4.6 Synthesis 87

3.4.6.1 Solvent 88

3.4.6.2 Zirconium(IV) Source 88

3.4.6.3 Modulators 88

3.4.6.4 Defects in UiO-66 92

3.4.6.5 Missing Linker Defects 93

3.4.6.6 Final Considerations and Outlook 100

Acknowledgments 102

References 102

4 Spongelike Functional Materials from TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibers 123
Andrea Fiorati, Nadia Pastori, Carlo Punta, and Lucio Melone

4.1 Introduction 123

4.2 Synthesis and Characterization of bPEI–TOCNF Sponges 125

4.3 Applications of bPEI–TOCNF Sponges 128

4.4 Nanostructured TOCNF Templates 132

4.5 TEMPO-Mediated Oxidation of Galactomannans: A New Class of Aerogels 136

4.6 Conclusions 138

Acknowledgments 139

References 139

5 Metal andMetal Oxide Nanosponges 143
Nilesh K. Dhakar

5.1 Introduction 143

5.2 Types of Metal Oxide Nanosponge 144

5.2.1 Monometallic Nanosponge 144

5.2.2 Bimetallic Nanosponge 145

5.2.3 Polymetallic Nanosponge 145

5.2.4 Template-Based Metal Oxide Nanosponge 145

5.2.4.1 Hard Template-Based Approach 146

5.2.4.2 Soft Template-Based Approach 146

5.2.5 Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) 147

5.3 Methods for the Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanosponge 149

5.3.1 Dealloying 150

5.3.2 Precipitation Method 151

5.3.3 Solvothermal Method 151

5.3.4 Electrochemical Deposition 152

5.3.5 Sol–Gel Method 152

5.4 Applications 153

5.4.1 Antimicrobial and Biomedical Application 153

5.4.2 As a Catalyst 155

5.4.3 Water Treatment 156

5.4.4 Drug Delivery 158

5.4.5 Energy Storage Device 159

5.4.6 Electrochemical Sensors 160

List of Abbreviations 160

References 161

6 Hybrid Nanosponges 173
Pravin Shende, Drashti Desai, and Ram S. Gaud

6.1 Introduction 173

6.1.1 Hybrid Materials 173

6.1.2 Photochromic Hybrid Materials 176

6.2 Hybrid Polymers 178

6.2.1 Hybrid Systems 178

6.2.2 Hybrid Nanosize Particles 179

6.2.3 Nanosponges 179

6.2.4 Hybrid Nanosponges 179

6.3 Toxicity 186

6.4 Characterization of Hybrid Nanosponges 188

References 190

7 Nanostructured Polymeric Hydrogels 193
Filippo Bisotti and Filippo Rossi

7.1 Introduction 193

7.2 Hydrogel Design Features 194

7.2.1 Typical Characteristics of Hydrogels 194

7.3 Swelling Behavior 195

7.3.1 Mass Transport Through Hydrogels 197

7.4 Gelation Theory 199

7.5 Cross-linking 201

7.5.1 Physical Cross-links 201

7.5.1.1 Heating and Cooling 202

7.5.1.2 Ionic Interaction 202

7.5.1.3 Complex Coacervation 203

7.5.1.4 Hydrogel Bonding and Hydrophobic Interaction 204

7.6 Chemical Cross-links 205

7.6.1 Radical Polymerization 205

7.6.2 Polycondensation 207

7.6.3 Schiff Base Cross-linking 208

7.6.4 Click Reaction 209

7.7 Hydrogel Degradation 209

7.8 Network Structure and Characteristic Parameters 213

7.8.1 Direct Measurement: Small-Angle Neutron Scattering 214

7.8.2 Indirect Evaluation: Flory–Rehner Theory 216

7.9 Drug Delivery Mechanisms and Experimental Evaluation 220

7.9.1 Drug Loading and Release Experiments 223

References 224

8 Vibrational Spectroscopic Methods for Nanosponges 227
Barbara Rossi, Francesco D’Amico, and Claudio Masciovecchio

8.1 Introduction 227

8.2 Molecular Vibrations and Principles of Raman Effect 227

8.3 Advantages/Utility of Raman Spectroscopy 232

8.4 Resonant Raman Scattering, Theory, and Applications to Investigations of Biosystems 234

8.5 Raman Measurements by Controlling Polarizations 236

8.6 Vibrational Dynamics of Cyclodextrin Nanosponges 238

8.6.1 Semiquantitative Estimation of Cross-linking Density in Dry Polymers of Nanosponges 239

8.6.2 Confined Water in Nanosponge Hydrogels 245

8.6.3 Molecular Encapsulation of Guest Molecules in Nanosponge Hydrogels 252

8.7 Final Remarks 257

References 258

9 Nanosponges in Catalysis and Sensing 263
Alex Fragoso and EwelinaWajs

9.1 Introduction 263

9.2 Nanosponges in Catalysis 263

9.2.1 Metal and Metal Oxide Nanosponges 263

9.2.2 Organic Nanosponges 268

9.3 Nanosponges in Sensing 271

9.3.1 Metal and Metal Oxide Nanosponges 271

9.3.2 Cyclodextrin-Based Nanosponges 273

9.4 Conclusions 276

List of Abbreviations 277

References 277

10 Nanosponges for Gas Storage 283
Fabrizio Caldera and Maria Tannous

10.1 Introduction 283

10.2 Hydrogen Storage 283

10.3 Methane Storage 290

10.4 Carbon Dioxide Adsorption 296

10.5 Conclusions 306

References 307

Index 317