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Nanostructured Polymer Membranes, Volume 2: Applications

Nanostructured Polymer Membranes, Volume 2: Applications

Visakh P. M. (Editor), Olga Nazarenko (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-83178-6

Aug 2016

560 pages

In Stock

$225.00

Description

The 2nd volume on applications with discuss the various aspects of state-of-the-art, new challenges and opportunities for gas and vapor separation of polymer membranes, membranes for wastewater treatment, polymer electrolyte membranes and methanol fuel cells, polymer membranes for water desalination, optical, electrochemical and anion/polyanion sensors, polymeric pervaporation membranes, organic-organic separation, biopolymer electrolytes for energy devices, carbon nanoparticles for pervaporation polymeric membranes, and mixed matrix membranes for nanofiltration application.

Preface xvii

1 Nanostructured Polymer Membranes: Applications, State-of-the-Art, New Challenges and Opportunities 1
Visakh. P. M

1.1 Membranes: Technology and Applications 1

1.2 Polymer Membranes: Gas and Vapor Separation 3

1.3 Membranes for Wastewater Treatment 4

1.4 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Methanol Fuel Cell 5

1.5 Polymer Membranes for Water Desalination and Treatment 6

1.6 Biopolymer Electrolytes for Energy Devices 7

1.7 Phosphoric Acid-Doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes 9

1.8 Natural Nanofibers in Polymer Membranes for Energy Applications 10

1.9 Potential of Carbon Nanoparticles for Pervaporation Polymeric Membranes 14

1.10 Mixed Matrix Membranes for Nanofiltration Application 16

1.11 Fundamentals, Applications and Future Prospects of Nanofiltration Membrane Technique 18

References 19

2 Membranes: Technology and Applications 27
Yang Liu and Guibin Wang

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Reverse Osmosis Process 37

2.3 Ultrafiltration Process 50

2.4 Pervaporation Process 59

2.5 Microfiltration Process 65

2.6 Coupled and Facilitated Transport 69

References 84

3 Polymeric Membranes for Gas and Vapor Separations 89
Seyed Saeid Hosseini and Sara Najari

3.1 Introduction 89

3.2 Significance and Prominent Industrial Applications 91

3.3 Fundamentals and Transport of Gases in Polymeric Membranes 100

3.4 Polymeric Membrane Materials for Gas and Vapor Separations 112

3.5 Strategies for Tuning the Transport in Polymeric Membranes through Molecular Design and Architecture 128

3.6 Process Modeling and Simulation 132

3.7 Challenges and Future Directions 141

3.8 Concluding Remarks 144

References 144

4 Membranes for Wastewater Treatment 159
Alireza Zirehpour and Ahmad Rahimpour

4.1 Introduction 160

4.2 Membrane Theory 161

4.3 Membrane Separation Techniques in Industry 168

4.4 Membrane Operations in Wastewater Management 178

4.5 Existing Membrane Processes 185

4.6 Industrial Development of Membrane Modules 194

4.7 Conclusion 198

References 198

5 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane and Methanol Fuel Cell 209
Kilsung Kwon and Daejoong Kim

5.1 Introduction 209

5.2 Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) 212

5.3 Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) 228

5.4 Principle and Working Process of PEMFCs 232

5.5 Principle and Working Process of DMFCs 236

5.6 Modeling and Theory of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells 241

5.7 Conclusion 243

References 243

6 Polymer Membranes for Water Desalination and Treatment 251
Tânia L. S. Silva, Sergio Morales-Torres, José L. Figueiredo and Adrián M. T. Silva

6.1 Introduction 252

6.2 Polymer Membranes Used in Distillation 253

6.3 Membrane Distillation 256

6.4 Desalination Driven by MD Systems 265

6.5 MD Hybrid Systems for Water Desalination and Treatment 272

6.6 Conclusions 275

Acknowledgments 275

References 276

7 Polymeric Pervaporation Membranes: Organic-Organic Separation 287
Francesco Galiano, Francesco Falbo and Alberto Figoli

7.1 General Introduction on Pervaporation 287

7.2 Brief History of Pervaporation 290

7.3 Polymeric Materials for Organic-Organic Separation – General Requirements 291

7.4 Pervaporation Case Studies for Organic-Organic Separation 298

7.5 Conclusions and Future Directions 303

References 303

8 Biopolymer Electrolytes for Energy Devices 311
Tan Winie1 and A. K. Arof

8.1 Introduction 312

8.2 Chitosan-Based Electrolyte Membranes 312

8.3 Methyl Cellulose-based Electrolyte Membranes 315

8.4 Biopolymer Electrolytes in Lithium Polymer Batteries 317

8.5 Biopolymer Electrolytes in Supercapacitors 322

8.6 Polymer Electrolytes in Fuel Cells 328

8.7 Biopolymer Electrolytes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) 332

8.8 Conclusions 344

Acknowledgments 346

References 346

9 Phosphoric Acid-Doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes: A Promising Electrolyte Membrane for High Temperature PEMFC 357
S. R. Dhanushkodi, M. W.Fowler, M. D. Pritzker and W. Merida

9.1 Introduction 357

9.2 Synthesis of PBI 362

9.3 Characterization of PBI 363

9.4 Research Needs and Conclusions 370

Table of Abbreviations 373

References 374

10 Natural Nanofibers in Polymer Membranes for Energy Applications 379
Annalisa Chiappone

10.1 Introduction 379

10.2 Natural Fibers 380

10.2.1 Cellulose and Chitin Structures 381

10.3 Polymer Nanocomposite Membranes Based on Natural Fibers: Production, Properties and General Applications 386

10.4 Applications of Natural Fibers Nanocomposite Membranes in the Energy Field 393

10.5 Conclusions 402

References 403

11 Potential Interests of Carbon Nanoparticles for Pervaporation Polymeric Membranes 413
Anastasia V. Penkova and Denis Roizard

11.1 Introduction 413

11.2 Principle of Permeation 415

11.3 Current Requirements for Pervaporation Membranes 418

11.4 Performances of Nanocomposite Membranes: From Membrane Preparations to Enhanced Properties with Carbon Nanoparticles 420

11.5 Impact of the Insertion of Carbon Particles in Pervaporation Membranes 422

11.6 Pervaporation Membranes 423

11.7 Pervaporation with the Use of MMM Containing Pristine Carbon Particles 424

11.8 Pervaporation with the Use of MMM Containing Functionalized Carbon Particles 427

11.9 Conclusion 434

Acknowledgment 435

References 435

12 Mixed Matrix Membranes for Nanofiltraion Application 441
Vahid Vatanpour, Mahdie Safarpour and Alireza Khataee

12.1 Introduction 442

12.2 Nanofiltration Process: History and Principles 443

12.3 Mixed Matrix Nanofiltration Membranes 444

12.4 Applications of Mixed Matrix Nanofiltration Membranes 468

12.5 Conclusion 469

Acknowledgment 470

List of Abbreviations 470

References 471

13 Fundamentals, Applications and Future Prospects of Nanofiltration Membrane Technique 477
Siddhartha Moulik, Shaik Nazia and S. Sridhar

13.1 Introduction 478

13.2 Membrane Synthesis 483

13.3 Membrane Characterization 485

13.4 Equations for Calculation of Operating Parameters 487

13.5 Effect of Feed Pressure on Process Flux 488

13.6 Optimization of NF Process Using Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) 490

13.7 Applications of NF in Societal Development and Industrial Progress 501

13.8 Economics of NF Process for Groundwater Purification 510

13.9 Conclusions 514

References 515

Index 519