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Nanotechnology: An Introduction to Nanostructuring Techniques

Nanotechnology: An Introduction to Nanostructuring Techniques

Michael Köhler, Wolfgang Fritzsche

ISBN: 978-3-527-61238-3

Jan 2008

284 pages

Select type: E-Book



Expectations of a technological revolution are associated with nanotechnology, and indeed the generation, modification and utilization of objects with tiniest dimensions already permeates science and research in a way that the absence of nanotechnology is no longer conceivable. It has progressed to an independent interdisciplinary field, its great success due to the purposeful combination of physical, mechanical and molecular techniques.

This book starts out with the most important fundamentals of microtechnology and chemistry on which the understanding of shaping nanoscale structures are based, then a variety of examples illustrate the fabrication of nanostructures from different materials. Subsequently, methods for characterization of the generated structures are presented to the reader.

Through this fascinating introduction, both scientists and engineers gain insights into the "other side" of nanotechnology.
1. Introduction.

1.1 The Way into the Nanoworld.

1.1.1 From Micro- to Nanotechniques.

1.1.2 Definition of Nanostructures.

1.1.3 Insight into the Nanoworld.

1.2 Building Blocks of Nanotechnology.

1.3 Interactions and Topology.

1.4 The Microscopic Environment of the Nanoworld.

2. Molecular Basics.

2.1 Particles and Bonds.

2.1.1 Chemical Bonds in Nanotechnology.

2.1.2 Van der Waals Interactions.

2.1.3 Dipole-Dipole Interactions.

2.1.4 Ionic Interactions.

2.1.5 Metal Bonds.

2.1.6 Covalent Bonds.

2.1.7 Coordinative Bonds.

2.1.8 Hydrogen Bridge Bonds.

2.1.9 Polyvalent Bonds.

2.2 Chemical Structure.

2.2.1 Bonding Topologies.

2.2.2 Building Blocks of Covalent Architecture.

2.2.3 Units for a Coordinated Architecture.

2.2.4 Building Blocks for Weakly Bound Aggregates.

2.2.5 Assembly of Complex Structures through the Internal Hierarchy of Binding Strengths.

2.2.6 Reaction Probability and Reaction Equilibrium.

3. Microtechnological Foundations.

3.1 Planar Technology.

3.2 Preparation of Thin Layers.

3.2.1 Condition and Preprocessing of the Substrate Surface.

3.2.2 Layer Deposition from the Gas Phase.

3.2.3 Evaporation.

3.2.4 Sputtering.

3.2.5 Chemical Vapor Deposition.

3.2.6 Galvanic Deposition.

3.2.7 Deposition by Spinning (Spin Coating).

3.2.8 Shadow-mask Deposition Techniques.

3.3 Preparation of Ultrathin Inorganic Layers and Surface-bound Nanoparticles.

3.3.1 Ultrathin Layers by Vacuum Deposition Processes.

3.3.2 Deposition of Ultrathin Films from the Liquid Phase.

3.3.3 In Situ Generation of Ultrathin Inorganic Films by Chemical Surface Modification.

3.3.4 In Situ Formation of Ultrathin Inorganic Layers on Heteroorganic Materials.

3.3.5 Immobilization of Nanoparticles.

3.3.6 In Situ Formation of Inorganic Nanoparticles.

3.4 Structure Generation and Fabrication of Lithographic Masks.

3.4.1 Adhesive Mask Techniques.

3.4.2 Role of Resist in Photolithography.

3.4.3 Serial Pattern Transfer.

3.4.5 Maskless Structure Generation.

3.4.6 Soft Lithography.

3.5 Etching Processes.

3.5.1 Etching Rate and Selectivity.

3.5.2 Isotropic and Anisotropic Etching Processes.

3.5.3 Lithographic Resolution in Etching Processes.

3.5.4 Dry Etching Processes.

3.5.6 High-resolution Dry Etching Techniques.

3.5.7 Choice of Mask for Nanolithographic Etching Processes.

3.6 Packaging.

3.7 Biogenic and Bioanalogue Molecules in Technical Microstructure.

4. Preparation of Nanostructures.

4.1 Principles of Fabrication.

4.1.1 Subtractive and Additive Creation of Nanostructures.

4.1.2 Nanostructure Generation by Lift-off Processes.

4.1.3 Principles of Nanotechnical Shape-definition and Construction.

4.2 Nanomechanical Structure Generation.

4.2.1 Scaling Down of Mechanical Processing Techniques.

4.2.2 Local Mechanical Cutting Processes.

4.2.3 Surface Transport Methods.

4.2.4 Reshaping Processes.

4.2.5 Printing Processes.

4.3 Nanolithography.

4.3.1 Structure Transfer by Electromagnetic Radiation.

4.3.2 Nanolithographic Transfer of Groups of Elements by Optical Projection.

4.3.3 EUV and X-ray Lithography.

4.3.4 Multilayer Resists Techniques with Optical Pattern Transfer.

4.3.5 Near-field Optical Structure Techniques with Contact masks.

4.3.6 Energetic Particles in Nanolithographic Structure Transfer.

4.3.7 Electron Beam Lithography.

4.3.8 Ion Beam Lithography.

4.3.9 Atomic Beam Lithography.

4.3.10 Molecular and Nanoparticle Beam Lithography.

4.3.11 Direct Writing of Structures by a Particle Beam.

4.3.12 Single-particle Beam Processes.

4.3.13 Nanofabrication by Self-structuring Masks.

4.4 Nanofabrication by Scanning Probe Techniques.

4.4.1 Scanning Force Probes.

4.4.2 Particle Manipulation With a Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM).

4.4.3 Thermo-mechanical Writing of Nanostructures.

4.4.4 Electrically Induced Structure Generation by Scanning Probe Techniques.

4.4.5 Chemical Electrodeless Induced Scanning Probe Structure Generation.

4.4.6 Nanostructure Generation by Optical Near-field Probes.

5. Nanotechnical Structures.

5.1 Inorganic Solids.

5.1.1 Influence of Material Morphology on Nanoscale Pattern Processes.

5.1.2 Inorganic Dielectrics.

5.1.3 Metals.

5.1.4 Semiconductors.

5.1.5 Carbon.

5.2 Organic Solids and Layer Structures.

5.2.1 Solids Composed of Smaller Molecules.

5.2.2 Organic Monolayer and Multilayer Stacks.

5.2.3 Synthetic Organic Polymers.

5.2.4 Biopolymers.

5.3 Molecular Monolayer and Layer Architectures.

5.3.1 Langmuir-Blodgett Films.

5.3.2 Self-assembled Surface Films.

5.3.3 Binding of Molecules on Solid Substrate Surfaces.

5.3.4 Secondary Coupling of Molecular Manolayers.

5.3.5 Categories of Molecular Layers.

5.3.6 Molecular Coupling Components (Linkers) and Distance Components (Spacers).

5.3.7 Definition of Binding Spots on Solid Substrates.

5.4 Architectures with Single Molecules.

5.4.1 Single Molecules as Nanostructures.

5.4.2 Strategic of Molecular Construction.

5.4.3 Biogenic and Bioanalogous Nanoarchitectures.

5.4.4 DNA Nanoarchitectures.

5.4.5 Synthetic Supramolecules.

5.4.6 Nanoparticles and Nanocompartments.

5.5 Combination of Molecular Architectures and Nanoparticles with Planar Technical Structures.

6. Characterization of Nanostructures.

6.1 Geometrical Characterization.

6.1.1 Layer Thickness and Vertical Structure Dimensions.

6.1.2 Lateral Dimensions.

6.1.3 Structures that Assist Measurement.

6.2 Characterization of Composition of Layers and Surfaces.

6.2.1 Atomic Composition.

6.2.2 Characterization of the Chemical Surface.

6.3 Functional Characterization of Nanostructures.

7. Nanotransducers.

7.1 Design of Nanotransducers.

7.2 Nanomechanical Elements.

7.2.1 Nanomechanical Sensors.

7.2.2 Nanometer-precision Position Measurements with Conventional Techniques.

7.2.3 Electrically Controlled Nanoactuators.

7.2.4 Chemically Driven Nanoactuators.

7.2.5 Regidity of Nanoactuators.

7.3 Nanoelectronic Devices.

7.3.1 Electrical Contacts and Nanowires.

7.3.2 Nanostructured Tunneling Barriers.

7.3.3 Quantum Dots and Localization of Elementary Particles.

7.3.4 Nanodiodes.

7.3.5 Electron Islands and Nanotransistors.

7.3.6 Nanoswitches, Molecular Switches and Logic Elements.

7.4 Nanooptical Devices.

7.4.1 Nanostructures as Optical Sensors.

7.4.2 Nanostructured Optical Actuators.

7.4.3 Nanooptical Switching and Conversion Elements.

7.5 Magnetic Nanotransducers.

7.6 Chemical Nanoscale Sensors and Actuators.

8. Techncial Nanosystems.

8.1 What are Nanosystems?

8.2 Systems and Nanocomponents.

8.3 Entire Systems with Nanometer Dimensions.

Table of Examples.



"...comprehensive coverage of all underlying principles...quite instructive diagrams..."
Chemistry & Industry

"Through this fascinating introduction, both scientists and engineers gain insights into the "other side" of nanotechnology in this highly recommended publication."
AFS - Advances in Food Sciences

"Of interest to scientists and engineers in many research areas of nanotechnology, this book offers a valuable referee source and some state-of-the-art reviews."
Lifeng Chi, Physics Department, Universität Münster, small

"In summary, the book offers a general survey of nanolitography and scanning probe techniques."
Colloid & Polymer Science

"The book is clearly written for people with a technical background who either wish to start research and development in nanotechnology or just want to learn more about nanotechnology and what it stands for. Once your mind becomes receptive to the idea of nanotechnology, the book is relatively easy to read, and I would recommend it as a good introductory text."
Materials World