# Network Routing: Fundamentals, Applications, and Emerging Technologies

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# Network Routing: Fundamentals, Applications, and Emerging Technologies

ISBN: 978-1-119-11486-4 March 2017 448 Pages

## Description

Network Routing: Fundamentals, Applications and Emerging Technologies serves as single point of reference for both advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying network routing, covering both the fundamental and more moderately advanced concepts of routing in traditional data networks such as the Internet, and emerging routing concepts currently being researched and developed, such as cellular networks, wireless ad hoc networks, sensor networks, and low power networks.

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Foreword xv

Preface xvii

Part I Fundamental Concepts 1

1 Introduction to Network Routing 3

1.1 Introduction to Networks 3

1.2 Network Architecture and Standards 6

1.3 Glimpse at the Network Layer 13

1.4 Addressing in TCP/IP Networks 16

1.5 Overview of Routing 20

1.6 Delivery, Forwarding, Routing, and Switching 21

1.7 Routing Taxonomy 23

1.8 Host Mobility and Routing 26

References 27

Abbreviations/Terminologies 28

Questions 30

Exercises 32

2 Basic Routing Algorithms 35

2.1 Introduction to Routing Algorithms 35

2.2 Routing Strategies 40

2.2.3 Flooding 44

2.3 Static Shortest Path Routing Algorithms 47

2.4 Dynamic Shortest Path Routing Algorithms 50

2.5 Stochastic Routing Algorithms 53

References 55

Abbreviations/Terminologies 55

Questions 56

Exercises 57

3 Fundamental Routing Protocols 59

3.1 Routing Protocols 59

3.2 Distance Vector Routing 61

3.2.1 Working of the Protocol 61

3.2.2 Convergence of Distance Vector Table 62

3.2.3 Issues in Distance Vector Routing 63

3.2.4 Improvements in Distance Vector Routing 67

3.3.1 Working of the Protocol 68

3.3.2 Routing Tables 70

3.4 Path Vector Routing 71

3.4.1 Working of the Protocol 72

3.5 Unicast, Multicast, and Broadcast Routing 77

References 82

Abbreviations/Terminologies 83

Questions 83

Exercises 84

Part II Routing with Quality]of]Service and Traffic Engineering 89

4 Quality]of]Service Routing 91

4.1 Introduction 91

4.2 QoS Measures 95

4.3 Differentiated and Integrated Services 97

4.4 QoS Routing Algorithms 103

4.5 QoS Unicast Routing Protocols 106

4.6 QoS Multicast Routing Protocols 108

4.7 QoS Best]Effort Routing 112

References 113

Abbreviations/Terminologies 116

Questions 117

5 Routing and MPLS Traffic Engineering 119

5.1 MPLS Fundamentals 119

5.2 Traffic Engineering Routing Algorithms 120

5.3 Minimum Interference Routing Algorithm 121

5.3.1 The Algorithm 122

5.3.2 Limitations of MIRA 123

5.4 Profile]Based Routing Algorithm 124

5.5 Dynamic Online Routing Algorithm 125

5.6 Wang et al.’s Algorithm 126

5.7 Random Races Algorithm 126

References 127

Abbreviations/Terminologies 128

Questions 128

Exercises 129

Part III Routing on the Internet 131

6 Interior Gateway Protocols 133

6.1 Introduction 133

6.2 Distance Vector Protocols 135

6.2.1 Routing Information Protocol 137

6.2.2 Interior Gateway Routing Protocol 141

6.3.1 Open Shortest Path First Protocol 144

6.3.2 Intermediate System to Intermediate System Protocol 148

References 152

Abbreviations/Terminologies 152

Questions 153

Exercises 155

7 Exterior Gateway Protocol 159

7.1 Introduction 159

7.1.1 Hosts vs Gateways 161

7.1.2 Gateway]to]Gateway Protocol 162

7.1.3 Autonomous System 163

7.1.4 Characteristics of EGP 165

7.2 Exterior Gateway Protocol 166

7.2.1 Evolution of EGP Standards 166

7.2.2 EGP Terminology and Topology 166

7.2.3 EGP Operation Model 167

7.3 Border Gateway Protocol 169

7.3.1 Router Connectivity and Terminology 169

7.3.2 Routing Information Base 181

7.3.3 BGP Operation 182

7.3.4 Decision Process 184

7.3.5 Route Selection Process 185

References 188

Abbreviations/Terminologies 189

Questions 190

Exercises 191

Part IV Other Routing Contexts 195

8 Routing in ATM Networks 197

8.1 Introduction 197

8.1.1 ATM Frames 199

8.1.2 ATM Connection 199

8.1.3 ATM Architecture 203

8.1.4 Service Categories 204

8.2 PNNI Routing 206

8.2.1 PNNI Interface 207

8.2.2 PNNI Hierarchy 207

8.2.3 Building the Network Topology 209

8.2.6 Setting up Connection 212

References 213

Abbreviations/Terminologies 213

Questions 214

Exercises 216

9 Routing in Cellular Wireless Networks 219

9.1 Introduction 219

9.2 Basics of Cellular Wireless Networks 220

9.3 Resource Allocation 229

9.4 Routing in GSM Networks 231

9.4.1 Architecture 232

9.4.2 Call Routing 234

9.5 Challenges in Mobile Computing 235

References 238

Abbreviations/Terminologies 240

Questions 241

Exercises 242

10 Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks 245

10.1 Introduction 245

10.1.1 Basics of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks 248

10.1.2 Issues with Existing Protocols 256

10.2 Table]Driven (Proactive) Routing Protocols 258

10.3 On]Demand (Reactive) Routing Protocols 260

10.4 Hybrid Routing Protocols 266

10.5 Hierarchical Routing Protocols 267

10.6 Geographic Routing Protocols 268

10.7 Power]Aware Routing Protocols 274

References 276

Abbreviations/Terminologies 278

Questions 280

Exercises 281

11 Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks 285

11.1 Basics of Wireless Sensor Networks 285

11.1.1 Hardware Architecture of Sensor Node 287

11.1.2 Network Topology 289

11.1.3 Design Factors 290

11.1.4 Classification of Routing Protocol 292

11.2 Routing Challenges in Wireless Sensor Networks 293

11.2.1 Self]Healing Networks 295

11.2.2 Security Threats 296

11.3 Flat Routing Protocols 297

11.4 Hierarchical Routing Protocols 303

11.5 Location]Based Routing Protocols 308

11.6 Multipath Routing Protocols 310

11.7 Query]Based Routing Protocols 312

11.8 Negotiation]Based Routing Protocols 314

11.9 QoS Routing Protocols 315

11.9.1 Challenges 316

11.9.2 Approach to QoS Routing 316

11.9.3 Protocols 317

References 317

Abbreviations/Terminologies 321

Questions 322

Exercises 324

12 Routing in 6LoWPAN 327

12.1 Introduction 327

12.1.1 IP for Smart Objects 328

12.1.2 6LoWPAN 329

12.1.3 ZigBee 330

12.1.4 ZigBee vs 6LoWPAN 330

12.2 6LoWPAN Fundamentals 331

12.2.1 Architecture 332

12.2.2 Header Format and Compression 332

12.2.3 Network Topology 335

12.2.4 Neighbor Discovery 335

12.2.5 Routing 336

12.3 Interoperability of 6LoWPAN 337

12.4 Applications 338

12.5 Security Considerations and Research Areas 341

References 342

Abbreviations/Terminologies 345

Questions 346

Exercises 348

13 Security in Routing 351

13.1 Introduction 351

13.1.1 Network Sniffer 353

13.1.2 Denial of Service Attack 357

13.1.3 Social Engineering 358

13.1.4 Packet Filtering 359

13.2 Attack Surface 360

13.2.1 Types of Attack Surface 361

13.2.2 Attack Surface and System Resources 361

13.2.3 Attack Surface Metric 362

13.2.4 Reduction in Attack Surface 362

13.3 Networked Battlefield 363

13.4 Mobile Agents 365

13.4.1 Architecture and Framework 368

13.4.2 Life Cycle 369

13.4.3 Challenges 370

13.5 Cognitive Security 370

13.5.1 Solution Concept 371

13.5.2 Cognitive Capabilities 372

13.5.3 General Capabilities 373

References 373

Abbreviations/Terminologies 374

Questions 375

Exercises 376

14 Reliability and Fault]Tolerant and Delay]Tolerant Routing 377

14.1 Fundamentals of Network Reliability 377

14.1.1 Importance of Reliability Calculation 378

14.1.2 Methods to Calculate the Reliability of a Network 379

14.2 Fault Tolerance 390

14.2.1 Fault]Tolerant Network 394

14.2.2 Autonomic Network 394

14.3 Network Management for Fault Detection 398

14.3.2 Mobile Agent 400

14.3.3 Policy]Based Network Management 401

14.4 Wireless Tactical Networks 402

14.5 Routing in Delay]Tolerant Networks 403

14.5.1 Applications 404

14.5.2 Routing Protocols 404

References 405

Abbreviations/Terminologies 407

Questions 408

Exercises 409

Index 411