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Noble Gas Chemistry: Structure, Bonding, and Gas-Phase Chemistry

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Noble Gas Chemistry: Structure, Bonding, and Gas-Phase Chemistry

Felice Grandinetti

ISBN: 978-3-527-80354-5 June 2018 360 Pages

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Description

Authored by one of the world's leading experts in the chemistry of lighter noble gases, this comprehensive monograph fills the need for an up-to-date review of the diverse experimental techniques and theoretical methods currently in practice.
After reviewing the experiments breaking the paradigm of "non-reactive" noble gases, the physico-chemical background is introduced. Besides the emphasis on gas phase reactions, the author presents other relevant systems, such as chemistry in the bulk phase, under high pressure, and cold matrices. The discussion of gas-phase chemistry of the noble gases covers neutral and ionic compounds, diatomic molecules, complexes with small molecules and metal compounds, up to large clusters.

Preface ix

Part I An Overview of Noble Gas Chemistry 1

1 A Historical Introduction 3

1.1 The Discovery of the Elements 3

1.2 The Emerging of Different Chemistries 7

1.2.1 Bulk-Phase Compounds 8

1.2.2 Molecules in Cold Matrices 11

1.2.3 Molecules in Liquid and Supercritical Noble Gases 12

1.2.4 Chemistry Under High Pressures 13

1.2.5 Gaseous Neutral Complexes 14

1.2.6 Gas-Phase Ion Chemistry 16

1.3 The Development of the Diverse Fields 18

2 Typical Compounds and Bonding Motifs 23

2.1 General Considerations 23

2.2 Clusters of Noble Gas Atoms 26

2.3 Monocoordinated Compounds 29

2.4 Dicoordinated (‘Inserted’) Compounds 30

2.5 Polycoordinated Compounds 41

2.6 Cage, Inclusion, and Adsorption Compounds 47

2.7 The Effects of the Pressure 51

3 Chemistry in Silico 55

3.1 The Role of Calculations in NobleGas Chemistry 55

3.2 Methods of Bonding Analysis 56

3.2.1 The AIM Theory 56

3.2.2 The Analysis of the ELF 57

3.2.3 The Analysis of the H(r) 58

3.2.4 The NBO Analysis 62

3.2.5 The EDA-NOCV Analysis 64

3.2.6 The Analysis of the CD Function 66

3.3 About the Performance of the Theoretical Methods 66

3.4 Illustrative Examples 70

3.4.1 Probing the Bonding Character 70

3.4.2 Structure and Stability of the XeFn (n = 1 − 6) 84

3.4.3 Open-shell Compounds 88

3.4.4 Exploring the PES 91

3.4.5 Neutral Compounds of Helium and Neon 99

3.4.6 Novel Compounds of Argon, Krypton, and Xenon 123

3.4.7 Radon Compounds 133

3.4.8 The Aerogen Bond 138

Part II Gas-Phase Chemistry of the Noble Gases 147

4 Neutral Species 149

4.1 Complexes with Atoms and Diatomic Molecules 149

4.1.1 The Interaction Energy 149

4.1.2 The Correlation Formulas 150

4.1.3 The Ng2 and NgNg′ 154

4.1.4 About the van der Waals Radii of the Noble Gases 157

4.1.5 The Efimov State of He3 159

4.1.6 Complexes with H2, N2, and O2 160

4.1.7 Complexes with C2, CO, and CS 162

4.1.8 Complexes with the Dihalogens 166

4.1.9 Complexes with the Hydrogen Halides 173

4.1.10 Complexes with Diatomic Metal Halides 178

4.2 Complexes with Polyatomic Molecules 183

4.2.1 Complexes with CO2, CS2, and COS 183

4.2.2 Complexes with H2O andNH3 186

4.2.3 Complexes with Hydrocarbons 191

4.2.4 Complexes with Halocarbons 194

4.2.5 Complexes with Other Organic Molecules 197

4.3 Dicoordinated Covalent Compounds 200

5 Ionic Species 203

5.1 Noble Gases as Ligands of Ionic Species 205

5.1.1 Complexes with Metal Cations 205

5.1.2 Complexes with Non-Metal Cations 220

5.1.3 Complexes with Anions 227

5.2 Protonated Noble Gases and Other Related Species 229

5.2.1 ArH+ as a Naturally Occurring Species 229

5.2.2 The NgH+ and NgmHn+ 231

5.2.3 Complexes of the NgH+ with Simple Ligands 241

5.2.4 Other Noble Gas Ions of Potential Interstellar Interest 244

5.3 Noble Gas Ionic Reactions 249

5.3.1 Reactions Involving Singly-charged Cations 249

5.3.2 Reactions Involving Doubly-charged Cations 253

A Chemical Composition of Air 259

B Ab Initio and DFT Electronic Structure Methods 261

C Atomic Charges of Diatomic Molecules 269

D Bond Distances and Polarisabilities of Diatomic Molecules 271

References 273

Index 337