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Non-Standard Computation: Molecular Computation, Cellular Automata, Evolutionary Algorithms, Quantum Computers

Non-Standard Computation: Molecular Computation, Cellular Automata, Evolutionary Algorithms, Quantum Computers

Tino Gramß, Stefan Bornholdt, Michael Gross, Melanie Mitchell, Thomas Pellizzari, Manfred Scroeder (Foreword by), Heinz Georg Schuster (Introduction)

ISBN: 978-3-527-60296-4

Jan 2005

240 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

<>In recent years, a discussion of fundamentally new computer concepts has been stirred up by new developments in various scientific areas. Even in the newspapers one could find articles containing evocative terms like 'Quantum Computers' or 'Molecular Computers'.

The background is the need for better performing computers in applications which require an extremely high parallelism or a special behaviour such as the simulation of quantum systems. Examples include the design of a turbine with about 100 parts, a realistic simulation of for instance only 40 electrons in a solid, and the search for the shortest telephone line that connects 100 cities scattered over a country. These require calculations that is far beyond the power of conventional computers!

This exciting book provides the first overview of and introduction to the chemical, biological and physical non-standard computation concepts which promise to solve these problems by a massive parallelism and a clever use of other effects: Molecular and Quantum Computers, and Genetic Algorithms.

Written on a scientific level, it is an up-to-date information source for scientists and graduate students working in the field in physics, chemistry, computer and life sciences as well as interested readers with a scientific background.

MOLECULAR COMPUTATION
Computational Molecules in the Cell
Artifical Biomolecular Systems
Supramolecular Systems
Future Prospects
Glossary of Biological, Biochemical, Chemical Terminology Used
GENETIC ALGORITHMS
Introduction
An Example: A Perfect Lens from Evolution
How Does It Really Work? Tricks and Variations
Applications of Genetic Algorithms
Model Inversion as a Hard Optimization Problem
Models of Genetic Algorithms
What next?
COMPUTATION IN CELLULAR AUTOMATA: A SELECTED REVIEW
Introduction
Von Neumann´s Self-Reproducing Cellular Automaton
Universal Computation in Cellular Automata
Dynamics and Computation in Cellular Automata
The Firing Squad Synchronization Problem
Parallel Formal-Language Recognition by Cellular Automata
Parallel Arithmetic by Cellular Automata
Evolving Cellular Automata with Genetic Algorithms
Conclusion
INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF QUANTUM COMPUTATION
Introduction: A Short History of Quantum Computation
Quantum Computers: A Simple Example
A Classical, Reversible Turing Machine
Quantum Turing Machines
Quantum Parallelism
Quantum-Mechanical, Locally Connected Computing Systems
Feynman´s Serial Computer
Margolus Cellular Automaton
Realizing Quantum Computers
Universal Quantum Turing Machines with Local Hamiltonians
Parallelizability
Undecidability
Summary
QUANTUM COMPUTERS: FIRST STEPS TOWARDS A REALIZATION
Introduction
Basic Building Blocks
Experimental Approaches
The Ion Trap QC
Flying Qubits: Atoms
A Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics QC
Flying Qubits: Photons
Quantum Error Correction
Conclusion and Outlook
Appendix: Mathematical Formalism
"...quite interesting both for the specialist and the occasionally interested reader..." (Bulletin of the Belgium Mathematical Society)