Skip to main content

Novel Carbon Materials and Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications

E-Book

$128.99

Novel Carbon Materials and Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications

Description

Connects knowledge about synthesis, properties, and applications of novel carbon materials and carbon-based composites

This book provides readers with new knowledge on the synthesis, properties, and applications of novel carbon materials and carbon-based composites, including thin films of silicon carbide, carbon nitrite, and their related composites. It examines the direct bottom-up synthesis of the carbon-based composite systems and their potential applications, and discusses the growth mechanism of the composite structures. It features applications that range from mechanical, electronic, chemical, biochemical, medical, and environmental to functional devices.

Novel Carbon Materials and Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications covers an overview of the synthesis, properties, and applications of novel carbon materials and composites. Especially, it covers everything from chemical vapor deposition of silicon carbide films and their electrochemical applications to applications of various novel carbon materials for the construction of supercapacitors to chemical vapor deposition of diamond/silicon carbide composite films to the covering and fabrication processes of nanodot composites.

  • Looks at the recent progress and achievements in the fields of novel carbon materials and composites, including thin films of silicon carbide, carbon nitrite, and their related composites
  • Discusses the many applications of carbon materials and composites
  • Focuses on the hot topic of the fabrication of carbon-based composite materials and their abilities to extend the potential applications of carbon materials
  • Published as a title in the new Wiley book series Nanocarbon Chemistry and Interfaces.

Novel Carbon Materials and Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications is an important book for academic researchers and industrial scientists working in the fabrication and application of carbon materials and carbon-based composite materials and related fields.

List of Contributors xi

Series Preface xiii

Preface xv

1 Cubic Silicon Carbide: Growth, Properties, and Electrochemical Applications 1
Nianjun Yang and Xin Jiang

1.1 General Overview of Silicon Carbide 1

1.1.1 SiC Properties 1

1.1.2 SiC Applications 3

1.1.3 Scope of this Chapter 4

1.2 Synthesis of Silicon Carbide 4

1.2.1 Acheson Process 4

1.2.2 Physical Vapor Transport 5

1.2.3 Chemical Vapor Deposition 5

1.3 Properties of Cubic Silicon Carbide 9

1.3.1 Surface Morphology 9

1.3.2 Electrochemical Properties 12

1.3.3 Surface Chemistry 16

1.3.3.1 Surface Terminations 16

1.3.3.2 Surface Functionalization 17

1.4 Electrochemical Applications of Cubic Silicon Carbide Films 20

1.4.1 Electrochemical Sensors 20

1.4.2 Biosensors 20

1.4.3 Energy Storage 21

1.4.4 Other Applications 24

1.5 Conclusions 24

Acknowledgements 26

References 26

2 Application of Silicon Carbide in Photocatalysis 35
Xiao-Ning Guo, Xi-Li Tong and Xiang-Yun Guo

2.1 Preparation of SiC with High Surface Area 36

2.1.1 Carbon Template Method 37

2.1.2 Sol-gel Method 40

2.1.3 Polycarbosilane Pyrolysis Method 42

2.2 Photocatalytic Water-Splitting 43

2.3 Photocatalytic Degradation of Pollutants 54

2.4 Photocatalytic Selective Organic Transformations 57

2.5 Photocatalytic CO2 Reduction 66

References 69

3 Application of Silicon Carbide in Electrocatalysis 73
Xiao-Ning Guo, Xi-Li Tong and Xiang-Yun Guo

3.1 Electrochemical Sensors 73

3.2 Direct Methanol Fuel Cells 76

3.3 Dye-sensitized Solar Cells 83

3.4 Lithium-ion Batteries 86

3.5 Supercapacitors 88

References 95

4 Carbon Nitride Fabrication and Its Water-Splitting Applications 99
Yanhong Liu, Baodong Mao and Weidong Shi

4.1 Introduction 99

4.2 Preparation of Pristine g-C3N4 100

4.2.1 Effect of Precursors 102

4.2.2 Effect of Reaction Parameters 102

4.3 Bandgap Engineering by Doping and Copolymerization 104

4.3.1 Doping of g-C3N4 104

4.3.1.1 C-doping and N-vacancy 104

4.3.1.2 S-doping 106

4.3.1.3 P-doping 106

4.3.1.4 Metal doping 107

4.3.2 Copolymerization of g-C3N4 107

4.4 Nanostructure Engineering of g-C3N4 109

4.4.1 Ordered Mesoporous Nanostructures of g-C3N4 109

4.4.1.1 Hard Templating Methods 109

4.4.1.2 Soft Templating Methods 110

4.4.1.3 Template-free Methods 112

4.4.2 Exfoliation to 2D Nanosheets of g-C3N4 113

4.4.3 0D Quantum Dots of g-C3N4 115

4.5 g-C3N4 Composite Photocatalysts 117

4.5.1 Metal/g-C3N4 Heterojunctions 117

4.5.2 Graphitic Carbon/g-C3N4 Heterojunctions 120

4.5.3 Semiconductors/g-C3N4 Heterojunctions 122

4.5.3.1 Type-II Heterojunction 123

4.5.3.2 Z-scheme 124

4.5.3.3 0D/2D Heterostructures 124

4.5.3.4 g-C3N4 Homojunctions 125

4.5.3.5 Dyes Sensitization 126

4.5.4 Deposition of Earth-Abundant Cocatalysts 128

4.6 Conclusions and Outlook 130

References 132

5 Carbon Materials for Supercapacitors 137
Yanfang Gao, Zijun Shi and Lijun Li

5.1 Introduction 137

5.2 Affecting Factors 139

5.2.1 Specific Surface Area 139

5.2.2 Pore Size 139

5.2.3 Surface Functional Groups 141

5.2.4 Electrical Conductivity 141

5.3 Electrolyte 142

5.3.1 Aqueous Electrolyte 142

5.3.2 Organic Electrolyte 143

5.3.3 Ionic Liquid Electrolytes 143

5.4 Electrode Materials 143

5.4.1 Activated Carbons 143

5.4.2 Graphene 148

5.4.3 Carbon Nanotubes 152

5.4.4 Carbide-Derived Carbon 157

5.4.5 Carbon Aerogels 159

5.5 Conclusion and Outlook 161

References 161

6 Diamond/𝛃-SiC Composite Films 169
Xin Jiang, Hao Zhuang and Haiyuan Fu

6.1 Introduction 169

6.2 Deposition Instruments 169

6.3 Conditions of the CVD Process 170

6.4 Film Quantity (Phase Distribution, Orientation, and Crystallinity) and Characterization 172

6.5 Growth Mechanism 177

6.6 Applications 179

6.6.1 Improvement of the Film Adhesion 179

6.6.2 Biosensor Applications 181

6.6.3 Preferential Protein Absorption 186

6.6.4 Diamond Networks 192

6.7 Conclusions and Future Aspects 196

References 198

7 Diamond/Graphite Nanostructured Film: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications 205
Nan Huang, Zhaofeng Zhai, Yuning Guo, Qingquan Tian and Xin Jiang

7.1 Introduction 205

7.2 Synthesis of the D/G Nanostructured Film 206

7.3 Growth Mechanism of the D/G Nanostructured Film 208

7.4 Properties and Applications of the D/G Nanostructured Film 210

7.4.1 Mechanical Properties 210

7.4.2 Electrochemical Properties 212

7.4.3 Hybrid D/G Film Electrode for the Detection of Trace Heavy Metal Ions 214

7.4.4 Hybrid D/G Film Electrochemical Biosensor for DNA Detection 216

7.5 Conclusions 218

Acknowledgment 219

References 219

8 Carbon Nanodot Composites: Fabrication, Properties, and Environmental and Energy Applications 223
Hui Huang, Yang Liu and Zhenhui Kang

8.1 Introduction 223

8.2 Synthesis, Structure, and Properties 224

8.2.1 Synthesis of C-dots 224

8.2.2 Composition and Structure 225

8.2.3 Properties 226

8.2.3.1 Absorption 226

8.2.3.2 Photoluminescence 227

8.2.3.3 Photoinduced Electron Transfer Property 227

8.2.3.4 Electrochemiluminescence 227

8.2.3.5 Proton adsorption 229

8.2.3.6 Toxicity 229

8.3 C-dot-based Functional Nanocomposites 229

8.3.1 C-dots in Mesoporous Structures 229

8.3.2 C-dots in Polymers 232

8.3.3 C-dots as Building Blocks for Mesoporous Structures 232

8.4 Catalysis Application 235

8.4.1 C-dots as Photocatalysts 235

8.4.2 C-dots as Electrocatalysts 239

8.4.3 Photocatalyst Design Based on C-dots 241

8.4.3.1 Metal Nanoparticle/C-dots Complex Photocatalyst 241

8.4.3.2 C-dots/Ag/Ag3PW12O40 Photocatalysts 242

8.4.3.3 C-dots/TiO2 Photocatalysts 243

8.4.3.4 CDs/Ag3PO4 Photocatalysts 244

8.4.3.5 CDs/Cu2O Photocatalysts 244

8.4.3.6 C-dots/C3N4 Photocatalysts 245

8.4.3.7 C-dots/Enzyme Photocatalysts 245

8.4.4 Photoelectrochemical Catalyst Design Based on C-dots 246

8.4.5 Modulation of Electron/Energy Transfer States at the TiO2–C-dots Interface 248

8.4.6 Electrocatalyst Design Based on C-dots 249

8.4.7 Surface Modifications Towards Catalyst Design 252

8.5 C-Dots for Sensing and Detection 252

8.5.1 PL Sensors 252

8.5.2 Electronic, Electrochemiluminescent and Electrochemical Sensors 255

8.5.3 C-dots for Humidity and Temperature Sensing 257

8.6 C-dots for Solar Energy 257

8.7 Application in Supercapacitors and Lithium-Ion Batteries 263

8.8 C-Dots Nanocomposite for Efficient Lubrication 264

8.9 Outlook 267

References 269

Index 275