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Nuclear and Particle Physics: An Introduction, 3rd Edition

Nuclear and Particle Physics: An Introduction, 3rd Edition

Brian R. Martin, Graham Shaw

ISBN: 978-1-119-34461-2

Mar 2019

536 pages

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Authors’ preface

Notes

About the companion website

1. Basic Concepts

1.1 History

1.1.1 The origins of nuclear physics

1.1.2 The emergence of particle physics: hadrons and quarks

1.1.3 The standard model of particle physics

1.2 Relativity and Antiparticles

1.3 Space-Time Symmetries and Conservation Laws

1.3.1 Parity

1.3.2 Charge conjugation

1.3.3 Time reversal

1.4 Interactions and Feynman Diagrams

1.4.1 Interactions

1.4.2 Feynman diagrams

1.5 Particle Exchange: Forces and Potentials

1.5.1 Range of forces

1.5.2 The Yukawa potential

1.6 Observable Quantities: Cross-sections and Decay Rates

1.6.1 Amplitudes

1.6.2 Cross-sections

1.6.3 The basic scattering formulas

1.6.4 Unstable states

1.7 Units

PROBLEMS 1

2. Nuclear Phenomenology

2.1 Mass Spectroscopy

2.1.1 Deflection spectrometers

2.1.2 Kinematic analysis

2.1.3 Penning trap measurements

2.1.3(a) Confinement field configuration

2.1.3(b) Ion trajectories

2.1.3(c) Production and trapping of ions

2.1.3(d) Frequency measurements

2.2 Nuclear Shapes and Sizes

2.2.1 Charge distribution

2.2.2 Matter distribution

2.3 Semi-Empirical Mass Formula: the Liquid Drop Model

2.3.1 Binding energies

2.3.2 Semi-empirical mass formula

2.4 Nuclear Instability

2.5 Decay Chains

2.6 β–Decay Phenomenology

2.6.1 Odd-mass nuclei

2.6.2 Even-mass nuclei

2.7 Fission

2.8 γ–Decays

2.9 Nuclear Reactions

PROBLEMS 2

3. Particle Phenomenology

3.1 Leptons

3.1.1 Lepton multiplets and lepton numbers

3.1.2 Universal lepton interactions; the number of neutrinos

3.1.3 Neutrinos

3.1.4 Neutrino mixing and oscillations

3.1.5 Oscillation experiments

3.1.5(a) Atmospheric neutrinos

3.1.5(b) Neutrino beam experiments

3.1.5(c) Solar neutrinos

3.1.5(d) Reactor experiments

3.1.6 Neutrino masses and mixing angles

3.1.7 Lepton numbers revisited

3.2 Quarks

3.2.1 Evidence for quarks

3.2.1(a) Hadron spectroscopy

3.2.1(b) Lepton scattering

3.2.1(c) Jet production

3.2.2 Quark generations and quark numbers

3.3 Hadrons

3.3.1 Flavour independence and charge multiplets

3.3.2 The simple quark model

3.3.3 Hadron decays and lifetimes

3.3.4 Hadron magnetic moments and masses

3.3.4(a) Magnetic moments

3.3.4(b) Masses

3.3.5 Heavy quarkonia

3.3.5(a) Charmonium

3.3.5(b) Bottomonium

3.3.5(c) The quark–antiquark potential

3.3.6 Allowed and exotic quantum numbers

PROBLEMS 3

4. Experimental Methods

4.1 Overview

4.2 Accelerators and Beams

4.2.1 DC accelerators

4.2.2 AC accelerators

4.2.2(a) Linear accelerators

4.2.2(b) Cyclic accelerators

4.2.2(c) Fixed target machines and colliders

4.2.2(d) Future accelerators

4.2.3 Neutral and unstable particle beams

4.3 Particle Interactions with Matter

4.3.1 Short-range interactions with nuclei

4.3.2 Ionisation energy losses

4.3.3 Radiation energy losses

4.3.4 Interactions of photons in matter

4.3.5 Ranges and interaction lengths

4.4 Particle Detectors

4.4.1 Gaseous ionisation detectors

4.4.1(a) Ionisation chamber

4.4.1(b) Wire chambers

4.4.1(c) Resistive plate chamber

4.4.1(d) Beyond the region of proportionality

4.4.2 Scintillation counters

4.4.3 Semiconductor detectors

4.4.4 Čerenkov counters and transition radiation

4.4.4(a) Čerenkov counters

4.4.4(b) Coherent Čerenkov radiation

4.4.4(c) Transition radiation

4.4.5 Calorimeters

4.4.5(a) Electromagnetic showers

4.4.5(b) Hadronic showers

4.5 Detector Systems

PROBLEMS 4

5. Quark Dynamics: The Strong Interaction

5.1 Colour

5.2 Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD)

5.2.1 The strong coupling constant

5.2.2 Screening, anti-screening and asymptotic freedom

5.3 New Forms of Matter

5.3.1 Exotic hadrons

5.3.1(a) Glueballs and hybrids

5.3.1(b) Heavy quarkonia

5.3.2(c) Exotic baryons

5.3.2 The quark-gluon plasma

5.4 Jets and Gluons

5.4.1 Colour counting

5.5 Deep Inelastic Scattering and Nucleon Structure

5.5.1 Scaling

5.5.2 Quark-parton model

5.5.3 Scaling violations and parton distributions

5.5.4 Inelastic neutrino scattering

5.6 Other Processes

5.6.1 Jets

5.6.2 Lepton pair production

5.7 Current and Constituent Quarks

PROBLEMS 5

6. Weak Interactions and Electroweak Unification

6.1 Charged and Neutral Currents

6.2 Charged Current Reactions

6.2.1 W+-–lepton interactions

6.2.2 Lepton-quark symmetry and mixing

6.2.3 W-boson decays

6.2.4 Charged current selection rules

6.3 The Third Generation

6.3.1 More quark mixing

6.3.2 Properties of the top quark

6.4 Neutral Currents and the Unified Theory

6.4.1 Electroweak unification

6.4.2 The Z0 vertices and electroweak reactions

6.5 Gauge Invariance and the Higgs Boson

6.5.1 Unification and the gauge principle

6.5.2 Particle masses and the Higgs field

6.5.3 Properties of the Higgs boson

6.5.4 Discovery of the Higgs boson

6.5.4(a) H0γγ

6.5.4(b) H0 → 4 charged leptons

6.5.4(c) Further evidence

PROBLEMS 6

7. Symmetry Breaking in the Weak Interaction

7.1 P Violation, C violation, and CP conservation

7.1.1 Muon decay symmetries

7.1.2 Parity violation in electroweak processes

7.2 Spin Structure of the Weak Interactions

7.2.1 Left-handed neutrinos and right-handed antineutrinos

7.2.2 Particles with mass: chirality

7.3 Neutral Kaons: Particle-Antiparticle Mixing and CP Violation

7.3.1 CP invariance and neutral kaons

7.3.2 CP violation in K0L decay

7.3.3 Flavour oscillations and CPT invariance

7.4 CP Violation and Flavour Oscillations in B Decays

7.4.1 Direct CP violation in decay rates

7.4.2 B0—B̅0 mixing

7.4.3 CP violation in interference

7.5 CP Violation in the Standard Model

PROBLEMS 7

8. Models and Theories of Nuclear Physics

8.1 The Nucleon-Nucleon Potential

8.2 Fermi Gas Model

8.3 Shell Model

8.3.1 Shell structure of atoms

8.3.2 Nuclear shell structure and magic numbers

8.3.3 Spins, parities, and magnetic dipole moments

8.3.4 Excited states

8.4 Non-Spherical Nuclei

8.4.1 Electric quadrupole moments

8.4.2 Collective model

8.5 Summary of Nuclear Structure Models

8.6 α-Decay

8.7 β-Decay

8.7.1 V-A theory

8.7.2 Electron and positron momentum distributions

8.7.3 Selection rules

8.7.4 Applications of Fermi theory

8.7.4(a) Kurie plots

8.7.4(b) Mass of the electron neutrino

8.7.4(c) Total decay rates

8.8 γ-Decay

8.8.1 Selection rules

8.8.2 Transition rates

PROBLEMS 8

9. Applications of Nuclear and Particle Physics

9.1 Fission

9.1.1 Induced fission and chain reactions

9.1.1(a) Fissile materials

9.1.1(b) Chain reactions

9.1.2 Thermal fission reactors

9.1.3 Radioactive waste

9.1.4 Power from ADS systems

9.2 Fusion

9.2.1 Coulomb barrier

9.2.2 Fusion reaction rates

9.2.3 Stellar evolution

9.2.3(a) Nucleosynthesis in the early universe

9.2.3(b) Stellar nucleosynthesis

9.2.4 Fusion reactors

9.3 Nuclear Weapons

9.3.1 Fission devices

9.3.2 Fission/fusion devices

9.4 Biomedical Applications

9.4.1 Radiation and living matter

9.4.2 Radiation therapy

9.4.3 Medical imaging using ionising radiation

9.4.3(a) Imaging using projected images

9.4.3(b) Computed tomography

9.4.4 Magnetic resonance imaging

9.5 Further Applications

9.5.1 Computing and data analysis

9.5.2 Archaeology and geophysics

9.5.3 Accelerators and detectors

9.5.4 Industrial applications

PROBLEMS 9

10. Some Outstanding Questions and Future Prospects

10.1 Overview

10.2 Hadrons and Nuclei

10.2.1 Hadron structure and the nuclear environment

10.2.2 Nuclear structure

10.3 Unification schemes

10.3.1 Grand Unification

10.3.1(a) Quark and lepton charges

10.3.1(b) The weak mixing angle

10.3.1(c) Proton decay

10.3.2 Supersymmetry

10.3.2(a) The search for supersymmetry

10.3.3 Strings and things

10.4 The nature of the neutrino

10.4.1 Neutrinoless double beta decay

10.5 Particle Astrophysics

10.5.1 Neutrino astrophysics

10.5.1(a) Supernovas and the neutrino mass

10.5.1(b) Ultra high-energy neutrinos

10.5.2 Cosmology and dark matter

10.5.2(a) Neutrinos

10.5.2(b) WIMPS

10.5.3 Matter-antimatter asymmetry

10.5.3(a) CP violation and electric dipole moments

10.5.4 Axions and the strong CP problem

Appendix A: Some Results In Quantum Mechanics

A.1 Barrier Penetration

A.2 Density of States

A.3 Perturbation Theory and the Second Golden Rule

A.4 Isospin Formalism

A.4.1 Isospin operators and quark states

A.4.2 Hadron states

Appendix B: Relativistic Kinematics

B.1 Lorentz Transformations and Four-Vectors

B.2 Frames of Reference

B.3 Invariants

PROBLEMS B

Appendix C: Rutherford Scattering

C.1 Classical Physics

C.2 Quantum Mechanics

PROBLEMS C

Appendix D: Gauge Theories

D.1 Gauge Invariance and the Standard Model

D.1.1 Electromagnetism and the gauge principle

D.1.2 The standard model

D.2 Particle Masses and the Higgs Field

PROBLEMS D

Appendix E: Short Answers To Selected Problems

References

Index