Numerical Methods for Engineers and Scientists, 3rd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-118-80301-1

Oct 2013

576 pages

Select type: E-Book

\$64.00

Description

Numerical Methods for Engineers and Scientists, 3rd Edition provides engineers with a more concise treatment of the essential topics of numerical methods while emphasizing MATLAB use. The third edition includes a new chapter, with all new content, on Fourier Transform and a new chapter on Eigenvalues (compiled from existing Second Edition content). The focus is placed on the use of anonymous functions instead of inline functions and the uses of subfunctions and nested functions. This updated edition includes 50% new or updated Homework Problems, updated examples, helping engineers test their understanding and reinforce key concepts.

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Preface iii

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Background 1

1.2 Representation of Numbers on a Computer 4

1.3 Errors in Numerical Solutions 10

1.4 Computers and Programming 15

1.5 Problems 18

Chapter 2 Mathematical Background 23

2.1 Background 23

2.2 Concepts from Pre-Calculus and Calculus 24

2.3 Vectors 28

2.4 Matrices and Linear Algebra 32

2.5 Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) 41

2.6 Functions of Two or More Independent Variables 44

2.7 Taylor Series Expansion of Functions 47

2.8 Inner Product and Orthogonality 50

2.9 Problems 51

Chapter 3 Solving Nonlinear Equations 57

3.1 Background 57

3.2 Estimation of Errors in Numerical Solutions 59

3.3 Bisection Method 61

3.4 Regula Falsi Method 64

3.5 Newton’s Method 66

3.6 Secant Method 71

3.7 Fixed-Point Iteration Method 74

3.8 Use of MATLAB Built-In Functions for Solving Nonlinear Equations 77

3.9 Equations with Multiple Solutions 79

3.10 Systems of Nonlinear Equations 81

3.11 Problems 88

Chapter 4 Solving a System of Linear Equations 99

4.1 Background 99

4.2 Gauss Elimination Method 102

4.3 Gauss Elimination with Pivoting 112

4.4 Gauss–Jordan Elimination Method 115

4.5 LU Decomposition Method 118

4.6 Inverse of a Matrix 128

4.7 Iterative Methods 132

4.8 Use of MATLAB Built-In Functions for Solving a System of Linear Equations 136

4.9 Tridiagonal Systems of Equations 141

4.10 Error, Residual, Norms, and Condition Number 146

4.11 Ill-Conditioned Systems 151

4.12 Problems 155

Chapter 5 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 165

5.1 Background 165

5.2 The Characteristic Equation 167

5.3 The Basic Power Method 167

5.4 The Inverse Power Method 172

5.5 The Shifted Power Method 173

5.6 The QR Factorization and Iteration Method 174

5.7 Use of MATLAB Built-In Functions for Determining Eigenvalues and

Eigenvectors 184

5.8 Problems 186

Chapter 6 Curve Fitting and Interpolation 193

6.1 Background 193

6.2 Curve Fitting with a Linear Equation 195

6.3 Curve Fitting with Nonlinear Equation by Writing the Equation in a Linear Form 201

6.4 Curve Fitting with Quadratic and Higher-Order Polynomials 205

6.5 Interpolation Using a Single Polynomial 210

6.6 Piecewise (Spline) Interpolation 223

6.7 Use of MATLAB Built-In Functions for Curve Fitting and Interpolation 236

6.8 Curve Fitting with a Linear Combination of Nonlinear Functions 238

6.9 Problems 241

Chapter 7 Fourier Methods 251

7.1 Background 251

7.2 Approximating a Square Wave by a Series of sine functions 254

7.3 General (Infinite) Fourier Series 257

7.4 Complex Form of the Fourier Series 262

7.5 The Discrete Fourier Series and Discrete Fourier transform 263

7.6 Complex Discrete Fourier Transform 269

7.7 Power (Energy) Spectrum 272

7.8 Aliasing and Nyquist Frequency 273

7.9 Alternative Forms of the Discrete Fourier Transform 278

7.10 Use of MATLAB Built-In Functions for Calculating Discrete Fourier Transform 279

7.11 Leakage and Windowing 284

7.12 Bandwidth and Filters 286

7.13 The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) 288

7.14 Problems 298

Chapter 8 Numerical Differentiation 303

8.1 Background 303

8.2 Finite Difference Approximation of the Derivative 305

8.3 Finite Difference Formulas Using Taylor Series Expansion 310

8.4 Summary of Finite Difference Formulas for Numerical Differentiation 317

8.5 Differentiation Formulas Using Lagrange Polynomials 319

8.6 Differentiation Using Curve Fitting 320

8.7 Use of MATLAB Built-In Functions for Numerical Differentiation 320

8.8 Richardson’s Extrapolation 322

8.9 Error in Numerical Differentiation 325

8.10 Numerical Partial Differentiation 327

8.11 Problems 330

Chapter 9 Numerical Integration 341

9.1 Background 341

9.1.1 Overview of Approaches in Numerical Integration 342

9.2 Rectangle and Midpoint Methods 344

9.3 Trapezoidal Method 346

9.4 Simpson’s Methods 350

9.6 Evaluation of Multiple Integrals 360

9.7 Use of MATLAB Built-In Functions for Integration 362

9.8 Estimation of Error in Numerical Integration 364

9.9 Richardson’s Extrapolation 366

9.10 Romberg Integration 369

9.11 Improper Integrals 372

9.12 Problems 374

Chapter 10 Ordinary Differential Equations: Initial-Value

Problems 385

10.1 Background 385

10.2 Euler’s Methods 390

10.3 Modified Euler’s Method 401

10.4 Midpoint Method 404

10.5 Runge–Kutta Methods 405

10.6 Multistep Methods 417

10.7 Predictor–Corrector Methods 420

10.8 System of First-Order Ordinary Differential Equations 422

10.9 Solving a Higher-Order Initial Value Problem 432

10.10 Use of MATLAB Built-In Functions for Solving Initial-Value Problems 437

10.11 Local Truncation Error in Second-Order Range–Kutta Method 447

10.12 Step Size for Desired Accuracy 448

10.13 Stability 452

10.14 Stiff Ordinary Differential Equations 454

10.15 Problems 457

Chapter 11 Ordinary Differential Equations: Boundary-Value

Problems 471

11.1 Background 471

11.2 The Shooting Method 474

11.3 Finite Difference Method 482

11.4 Use of MATLAB Built-In Functions for Solving Boundary Value Problems 492

11.5 Error and Stability in Numerical Solution of Boundary Value Problems 497

11.6 Problems 499

Appendix A Introductory MATLAB 509

A.1 Background 509

A.2 Starting with MATLAB 509

A.3 Arrays 514

A.4 Mathematical Operations with Arrays 519

A.5 Script Files 524

A.6 Plotting 526

A.7 User-Defined Functions and Function Files 528

A.8 Anonymous Functions 530

A.9 Function functions 532

A.10 Subfunctions 535

A.11 Programming in MATLAB 537

A.11.1 Relational and Logical Operators 537

A.11.2 Conditional Statements, if-else Structures 538

A.11.3 Loops 541

A.12 Problems 542

Appendix B MATLAB Programs 547

Appendix C Derivation of the Real Discrete Fourier Transform 551

C.1 Orthogonality of Sines and Cosines for Discrete Points 551

C.2 Determination of the Real DFT 553

Index 555

• NEW Chapter: A new chapter (Chapter 7) on Fourier Methods has been added to the book. The chapter covers Fourier series, discrete Fourier series, Discrete Fourier Transform, and an introduction to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), which is widely used in engineering for processing digital data.
• Eignvalues and Eignvectors: This topic, which was part of Chapter 4 (Solving a System of Linear Equations) in the first two editions of the book, is now covered in a separate chapter, further strengthening the coverage of this key topic.
• MATLAB: The third edition of the book is updated to MATLAB R2012b. All the programs use anonymous functions, and function handles are used for passing functions into functions. Appendix A has been updated to the current version of MATLAB.
• Homework Problems: Increased number of end-of-chapter problems to approximately 40 per chapter. About 50% of end-of-chapter problems have been revised.

Concise presentation of numerical methods written to enhance student’s understanding.

• Presents core information in manageable chunks for the student without overwhelming them with detail.

Text includes many examples and end-of-chapter problems to help students learn numerical methods.

• Three levels of homework problems address applying numerical methods techniques with traditional pencil and paper and with MATLAB. See end-of-chapter problem sets.
• Realistic applications from engineering and science motivate students.

Flexible structure addresses needs of various types of courses and students.