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Odour Impact Assessment Handbook

Vincenzo Belgiorno (Editor), Vincenzo Naddeo (Editor), Tiziano Zarra (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-48128-8 November 2012 312 Pages


Odours have become a priority concern for facility operators, engineers and urban planners who deal with waste and industrial treatment plants. The subjectivity of smell perception, its variability due to frequency and weather conditions, and the complex nature of the substances involved, has long hampered the regulation of odour emissions.

This book provides a comprehensive framework for the assessment, measurement and monitoring of odour emissions, and covers: 

  • Odour characterization and exposure effects
  • Instruments and methods for sampling and measurement
  • Strategies for odour control
  • Dispersion modelling for odour exposure assessment
  • Odour regulations and policies
  • Procedures for odour impact assessment
  • Case studies: Wastewater treatment, composting, industrial and CAFO plants, and landfill

Intended for researchers in environmental chemistry, environmental engineering, and civil engineering, this book is also an invaluable guide for industry professionals working in wastewater treatment, environmental and air analysis, and waste management.

List of Contributors xi

Preface xiii

Glossary and Abbreviations xv

1 Introduction 1
V. Naddeo, V. Belgiorno and T. Zarra

1.1 Origin and Definition 1

1.2 Quantifying Odour 2

1.3 Effects of Odour 3

1.4 Odour Impact Assessment Approaches 4

References 4

2 Odour Characterization and Exposure Effects 7
V. Naddeo, V. Belgiorno and T. Zarra

2.1 Attribute Descriptors 7

2.2 Chemistry and Odours 16

2.3 Odorous Compounds, Thresholds and Sources 19

2.4 Public Health Relevance of Odour Exposure 22

2.5 Odour Annoyance and Nuisance 24

References 28

3 Instruments and Methods for Odour Sampling and Measurement 31

Sections 3.1–3.4 31
T. Zarra, V. Naddeo and V. Belgiorno

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 Sampling Techniques 32

3.3 Measurement of Odorous Substances 36

3.4 Determination of Odour Concentration by Dynamic Olfactometry 40

3.5 Determination of Odour Concentration by the Triangular Odour Bag Method 43
T. Higuchi

3.6 Estimation of Emission Rate 50
T. Zarra, V. Naddeo and V. Belgiorno

3.7 Measurement of Odour Exposure by Field Assessment 59
T. Zarra, V. Naddeo and V. Belgiorno

3.8 Measurement of Odour by Sensor Arrays 63
N. Dutta and M. Bhuyan

4 Strategies for Odour Control 85
J. M. Estrada, R. Lebrero, G. Quijano, N. J. R. Kraakman, R. Muñoz

4.1 Introduction 85

4.2 Control of Odour Dispersion 87

4.3 Control of Odour Effects on an Exposed Community 90

4.4 Control of Odour Emission 92

References 119

5 Dispersion Modelling for Odour Exposure Assessment 125
M. Piringer and G. Schauberger

5.1 Introduction 125

5.2 Odour Perception 126

5.3 Overview on Types of Odour Dispersion Model 132

5.4 Algorithms to Estimate Short-Term Odour Concentrations 135

5.5 Annoyance 143

5.6 Odour Impact Criteria for Use in Dispersion Modelling 145

5.7 Meteorological Input to Odour Dispersion Models 152

5.8 Evaluation of Odour Dispersion Models 165

References 168

6 Odour Regulation and Policies 175
S. Sironi, L. Capelli, L. Dentoni and R. Del Rosso

6.1 Introduction 175

6.2 Regulation Based on Air Quality Standards and Limit Values 177

6.3 Regulation Based on Direct Exposure Assessment 178

6.4 Regulation Based on ‘No Annoyance’ 180

6.5 Regulation Based on Application of Best Practice 181

6.6 Comparison of Different Regulatory Approaches 183

References 183

7 Procedures for Odour Impact Assessment 187
V. Naddeo, V. Belgiorno and T. Zarra

7.1 Introduction 187

7.2 Factors Contributing to Odour Impact 187

7.3 Odour Impact Assessment from Exposure Measurement 190

7.4 Odour Impact Assessment from Sources 193

7.5 Mitigation of Odour Impact 197

7.6 Odour Monitoring 201

References 203

8 Case Studies for Assessment, Control and Prediction of Odour Impact 205

8.1 Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant 205
J. Lehtinen

References 218

8.2 Composting Plant 219
S. Giuliani, T. Zarra, M. Reiser, V. Naddeo, M. Kranert, V. Belgiorno

References 228

8.3 Landfill of Solid Waste 230
A.C. Romain and J. Nicolas

References 248

8.4 Industrial Activities 249
I. Sówka

References 257

8.5 Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Plants 259
K. Y. Wang

References 268

8.6 Assessment, Control and Management of Odour in Sensitive Areas 269
N. Kalogerakis and M. Lazaridis

References 282

Index 285

ChapterPageDetailsDatePrint Run
2,324, 25, 26, 50-58Errata
Please note, following publication, it transpired that some material from unpublished sources had accidentally been used by the editors in compiling chapters where the original authors had not been credited. This document shows the proper creditation.
21st November 2013360,645