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Open-Ended Problems: A Future Chemical Engineering Education Approach

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$120.99

Open-Ended Problems: A Future Chemical Engineering Education Approach

James Patrick Abulencia, Louis Theodore

ISBN: 978-1-118-94605-3 March 2015 608 Pages

Description

This is a unique book with nearly 1000 problems and 50 case studies on open-ended problems in every key topic in chemical engineering that helps to better prepare chemical engineers for the future. The term "open-ended problem" basically describes an approach to the solution of a problem and/or situation for which there is not a unique solution. The Introduction to the general subject of open-ended problems is followed by 22 chapters, each of which addresses a traditional chemical engineering or chemical engineering-related topic.  Each of these chapters contain a brief overview of the subject matter of concern, e.g., thermodynamics, which is followed by sample open-ended problems that have been solved (by the authors) employing one of the many possible approaches to the solutions.  This is then followed by approximately 40-45 open-ended problems with no solutions (although many of the authors’ solutions are available for those who adopt the book for classroom or training purposes).  A reference section is included with the chapter’s contents. Term projects, comprised of 12 additional chapter topics, complement the presentation.

This book provides academic, industrial, and research personnel with the material that covers the principles and applications of open-ended chemical engineering problems in a thorough and clear manner.  Upon completion of the text, the reader should have acquired not only a working knowledge of the principles of chemical engineering, but also (and more importantly) experience in solving open-ended problems.

What many educators have learned is that the applications and implications of open-ended problems are not only changing professions, but also are moving so fast that many have not yet grasped their tremendous impact.  The book drives home that the open-ended approach will revolutionize the way chemical engineers will need to operate in the future.

Preface  xix

Acknowledgements xxi

Part I: Introduction to the Open-Ended Problem Approach 1

Part II: Chemical Engineering Topics 13

1 Materials Science and Engineering 15

1.1 Overview 15

1.2 Crystallography of Perfect Crystals (CPC) 17

1.3 Crystallography of Real Crystals (CRC) 25

1.4 Materials of Construction 27

1.5 Resistivity 28

1.6 Semiconductors 29

1.7 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 30

1.8 Open-Ended Problems 34

References 37

2 Applied Mathematics 39

2.1 Overview 39

2.2 Differentiation and Integration 41

2.3 Simultaneous Linear Algebraic Equations 42

2.4 Nonlinear Algebraic Equations 43

2.5 Ordinary and Partial Differential Equation 44

2.6 Optimization 45

2.7 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 48

2.8 Open-Ended Problems 51

References 56

3 Stoichiometry 59

3.1 Overview 59

3.2 The Conservation Law 60

3.3 Conservation of Mass, Energy, and Momentum 62

3.4 Stoichiometry 64

3.5 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 67

3.6 Open-Ended Problems 72

References 77

4 Thermodynamics 79

4.1 Overview 79

4.2 Enthalpy Effects 81

4.3 Second Law Calculations 84

4.4 Phase Equilibrium 86

4.5 Chemical Reaction Equilibrium 88

4.6 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 90

4.7 Open-Ended Problems 94

References 97

5 Fluid Flow 99

5.1 Overview 99

5.2 Basic Laws 101

5.3 Key Fluid Flow Equations 102

5.4 Fluid-Particle Applications 108

5.5 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 110

5.6 Open-Ended Problems 114

References 118

6 Heat Transfer 119

6.1 Overview 119

6.2 Conduction 121

6.3 Convection 122

6.4 Radiation 125

6.5 Condensation, Boiling, Refrigeration, and Cryogenics 126

6.6 Heat Exchangers 127

6.7 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 129

6.8 Open-Ended Problems 134

References 139

7 Mass Transfer Operations 141

7.1 Overview 141

7.2 Absorption 143

7.3 Adsorption 148

7.4 Distillation 152

7.5 Other Mass Transfer Processes 158

7.6 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 160

7.7 Open-Ended Problems 163

References 166

8 Chemical Reactors 169

8.1 Overview 169

8.2 Chemical Kinetics 171

8.3 Batch Reactors 174

8.4 Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTRs) 176

8.5 Tubular Flow Reactors 178

8.6 Catalytic Reactors 181

8.7 Thermal Effects 184

8.8 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 187

8.9 Open-Ended Problems 192

References 196

9 Process Control and Instrumentation 197

9.1 Overview 197

9.2 Process Control Fundamentals 199

9.3 Feedback Control 203

9.4 Feedforward Control 204

9.5 Cascade Control 205

9.6 Alarms and Trips 206

9.7 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 207

9.8 Open-Ended Problems 209

References 212

10 Economics and Finance

10.1 Overview 213

10.2 Capital Costs 216

10.3 Operating Costs 217

10.4 Project Evaluation 218

10.5 Perturbation Studies in Optimization 219

10.6 Principles of Accounting 220

10.7 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 221

10.8 Open-Ended Problems 225

References 230

11 Plant Design 233

11.1 Overview 233

11.2 Preliminary Studies 235

11.3 Process Schematics 236

11.4 Material and Energy Balances 237

11.5 Equipment Design 238

11.6 Instrumentation and Controls 240

11.7 Design Approach 240

11.8 The Design Report 242

11.9 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 243

11.10 Open-Ended Problems 246

References 250

12 Transport Phenomena 253

12.1 Overview 253

12.2 Development of Equations 255

12.3 The Transport Equations 256

12.4 Boundary and Initial Conditions 257

12.5 Solution of Equations 258

12.6 Analogies 258

12.7 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 262

12.8 Open-Ended Problems 264

References 267

13 Project Management 269

13.1 Overview 269

13.2 Managing Project Activities 271

13.3 Initiating 272

13.4 Planning/Scheduling 273

13.5 Gantt Charts 275

13.6 Executing/Implementing 276

13.7 Monitoring/Controlling 277

13.8 Completion/Closing 278

13.9 Reports 279

13.10 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 280

13.11 Open-Ended Problems 284

References 291

14 Environmental  Management 293

14.1 Overview 293

14.2 Environmental Regulations 295

14.3 Classification, Sources, and Effects of Pollutants 296

14.4 Multimedia Concerns 297

14.5 ISO 14000 298

14.6 The Pollution Prevention Concept 299

14.7 Green Chemistry and Green Engineering 300

14.8 Sustainability 301

14.9 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 302

14.10 Open-Ended Problems 309

References 315

15 Environmental Health and Hazard Risk Assessment 317

15.1 Overview 317

15.2 Safety and Accidents 319

15.3 Regulations 320

15.4 Emergency Planning and Response 321

15.5 Introduction to Environmental Risk Assessment 322

15.6 Health Risk Assessment 323

15.7 Hazard Risk Assessment 326

15.8 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 329

15.9 Open-Ended Problems 333

References 341

16 Energy Management 343

16.1 Overview 343

16.2 Energy Resources 345

16.3 Energy Quantity/Availability 346

16.4 General Conservation Practices in Industry 346

16.5 General Domestic Conservation Applications 347

16.6 General Commercial Real Estate Conservation Applications 348

16.7 Architecture and the Role of Urban Planning 349

16.8 The U.S. Energy Policy/Independence 350

16.9 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 352

16.10 Open-Ended Problems 355

References 361

17 Water Management 363

17.1 Overview 363

17.2 Water as a Commodity and as a Human Right 365

17.3 The Hydrologic Cycle 366

17.4 Water Usage 367

17.5 Regulatory Status 367

17.6 Acid Rain 370

17.7 Treatment Processes 371

17.8 Future Concerns 372

17.9 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 373

17.10 Open-Ended Problems 376

References 381

18 Biochemical  Engineering 83

18.1 Overview 383

18.2 Enzyme and Microbial Kinetics 385

18.3 Enzyme Reaction Mechanisms 386

18.4 Effectiveness Factor 389

18.5 Design Procedures 391

18.6 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 394

18.7 Open-Ended Problems 399

References 403

19 Probability and Statistics 405

19.1 Overview   405

19.2 Probability Definitions and Interpretations 407

19.3 Introduction to Probability Distributions 408

19.4 Discrete and Continuous Probability Distributions 410

19.5 Contemporary Statistics 410

19.6 Regression Analysis (3) 411

19.7 Analysis of Variance 412

19.8 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 413

19.9 Open-Ended Problems 418

References 425

20 Nanotechnology 427

20.1 Overview 427

20.2 Early History 429

20.3 Fundamentals and Basic Principles 429

20.4 Nanomaterials 430

20.5 Production Methods 431

20.6 Current Applications 432

20.7 Environmental Concerns 433

20.8 Future Prospects 434

20.9 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 436

20.10 Open-Ended Problems 440

References 443

21 Legal Considerations 445

21.1 Overview 445

21.2 Intellectual Property Law 447

21.3 Contract Law 448

21.4 Tort Law 448

21.5 Patents 449

21.6 Infringement and Interferences 451

21.7 Copyrights 452

21.8 Trademarks 453

21.9 The Engineering Professional Licensing Process 454

21.10 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 454

21.11 Open-Ended Problems 457

22 Ethics 463

22.1 Overview 463

22.2 The Present State 464

22.3 Moral Issues 466

22.4 Engineering Ethics 467

22.5 Environmental Justice 468

22.6 Illustrative Open-Ended Problems 470

22.7 Open-Ended Problems 473

References 480

Part III: Term Projects 483

23 Term Projects (2): Applied Mathematics 485

23.1 Term Project 23.1 486

23.2 Term Project 23.2 487

References 488

24 Term Projects (2): Stoichiometry 489

24.1 Term Project 24.1 490

24.2 Chemical Plant Solid Waste 493

Reference 493

25 Term Projects (2): Thermodynamics 495

25.1 Estimating Combustion Temperatures 496

25.2 Generating Entropy Data 496

References 497

26 Term Projects (6): Fluid Flow 499

26.1 Pressure Drop - Velocity - Mesh Size Correlation 500

26.2 Fanning?s Friction Factor: Equation Form 500

26.3 An Improved Pressure Drop and Flooding Correlation 503

26.4 Ventilation Model I 505

26.5 Ventilation Model II 506

26.6 Two ? Phase Flow 506

27 Term Projects (4): Heat Transfer 509

27.1 Wilson?s Method 510

27.2 Heat Exchanger Network I 511

27.3 Heat Exchanger Network II 513

27.4 Heat Exchanger Network III 514

References 515

28 Term Projects (5): Mass Transfer Operations 517

28.1 An Improved Absorber Design Procedure 518

28.2 An Improved Adsorber Design Procedure 519

28.3 Multicomponent Distillation Calculations 520

28.4 A New Liquid-Liquid Extraction Process 523

28.5 Designing and Predicting the Performance of Cooling Towers 525

References 526

29 Term Projects (2): Chemical Reactors 529

29.1 Minimizing Volume Requirements for CSTRs in Series I 530

29.2 Minimizing Volume Requirements for CSTRs in Series II 531

References 531

30 Term Projects (4): Plant Design 533

30.1 Chemical Plant Shipping Facilities 534

30.2 Plant Tank Farms 535

30.3 Chemical Plant Storage Requirements 536

30.4 Inside Battery Limits (ISBL) and Process Flow Approach 538

References 541

31 Term Projects (4): Environmental Management 543

31.1 Dissolve The USEPA 544

31.2 Solving Your Town's Sludge Problem 547

31.3 Benzene Underground Storage Tank Leak 549

31.4 An Improved MSDS Sheet 551

32 Term Projects (4): Health and Hazard Risk Assessment 553

32.1 Nuclear Waste Management 554

32.2 An Improved Risk Management Program 555

32.3 Bridge Rail Accident: Fault and Event Tree Analysis 557

32.4 HAZOP: Tank Car Loading Facility 558

References 560

33 Term Projects (3): Unit Operations Laboratory Design Projects 561

33.1 Hand Pump 562

33.2 Rooftop Garden Bed 563

33.3 Hydration Station Counter 564

Reference 566

34 Term Projects (4): Miscellaneous Topics 567

34.1 Standardizing Project Management 568

34.2 Monte Carlo Simulation: Bus Section Failures in Electrostatic Precipitators 569

34.3 Hurricane and Flooding Concerns 570

34.4 Meteorites 571

References 573

Index 575