Operation and Maintenance of Large Turbo-Generators
Operation and Maintenance of Large Turbo-Generators
Jan 2005, Wiley-IEEE Press
DescriptionThe comprehensive guide for the operation and maintenance of large turbo-generators
Operation and Maintenance of Large Turbo-Generators is the ultimate resource for operators and inspectors of large utility and industrial generating facilities who deal with multiple units of disparate size, origin, and vintage. It offers the complete scope of information regarding operation and maintenance of all types of turbine-driven generators built in the world.
Based on the authors’ combined sixty years of generating station and design work experience, the information presented in the book is designed to inform the reader about actual machine operational problems and failure modes that occur in generating stations and other types of facilities. Readers will find very detailed coverage of:
- Design and construction of generators and auxiliary systems
- Generator operation, including interaction with the grid
- Monitoring, diagnostics, and protection of turbo-generators
- Inspection practices, including stator, rotor, and auxiliary systems
- Ideas for improving plant reliability and reducing costs and electrical failures
- Maintenance testing, including electrical and nondestructive examination
Operation and Maintenance of Large Turbo-Generators comes filled with photos and graphs, commonly used inspection forms, and extensive references for each topic. It is an indispensable resource for anyone involved in the design, construction, protection, operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting of large generators in generating stations and industrial power facilities. The book is also an excellent learning tool for students, consultants, and design engineers.
I THEORY, CONSTRUCTION, AND OPERATION.
1 PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES.
1.1 Introduction to Basic Notions on Electric Power.
1.2 Electrical—Mechanical Equivalence.
1.3 Alternated Circuits (AC).
1.4 Three-Phase Circuits.
1.5 Basic Principles of Machine Operation.
1.6 The Synchronous Machine.
1.7 Basic Operation of the Synchronous Machine.
2 GENERATOR DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION.
2.1 Stator Core.
2.2 Stator Frame.
2.3 Flux and Armature Reaction.
2.5 End-Region Effects and Flux Shielding .
2.6 Stator Core and Frame Forces.
2.7 Stator Windings.
2.8 Stator Winding Wedges.
2.9 End-Winding Support Systems.
2.10 Stator Winding Configurations.
2.11 Stator Terminal Connections.
2.12 Rotor Forging.
2.13 Rotor Winding.
2.14 Rotor Winding Slot Wedges.
2.15 Amortisseur Winding.
2.17 Bore Copper and Terminal Connectors.
2.18 Slip-Collector Rings and Brush-Gear.
2.19 Rotor Shrink Coupling.
2.20 Rotor Turning Gear.
2.22 Air and Hydrogen Cooling.
2.23 Rotor Fans.
2.24 Hydrogen Containment.
2.25 Hydrogen Coolers.
3 GENERATOR AUXILIARY SYSTEMS.
3.1 Lube-Oil System.
3.2 Hydrogen Cooling System.
3.3 Seal-Oil System.
3.4 Stator Cooling Water System.
3.5 Exciter Systems.
4 OPERATION AND CONTROL.
4.1 Basic Operating Parameters.
4.2 Operating Modes.
4.3 Machine Curves.
4.4 Special Operating Conditions.
4.5 Basic Operation Concepts.
4.6 System Considerations.
4.7 Excitation and Voltage Regulation.
4.8 Performance Curves.
4.9 Sample of Generator Operating Instructions.
5 MONITORING AND DIAGNOSTICS.
5.1 Generator Monitoring Philosophies.
5.2 Simple Monitoring with Static High-Level Alarm Limits.
5.3 Dynamic Monitoring with Load-Varying Alarm Limits.
5.4 Artificial Intelligence Diagnostic Systems.
5.5 Monitored Parameters.
6 GENERATOR PROTECTION.
6.1 Basic Protection Philosophy.
6.2 Generator Protective Functions.
6.3 Brief Description of Protective Functions.
6.4 Specialized Protection Schemes.
6.5 Tripping and Alarming Methods.
II INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND TESTING.
7 INSPECTION PRACTICES AND METHODOLOGY.
7.1 Site Preparation.
7.2 Experience and Training.
7.3 Safety Procedures—Electrical Clearances.
7.4 Inspection Frequency.
7.5 Generator Accessibility.
7.6 Inspection Tools.
7.7 Inspection Forms.
8 STATOR INSPECTION.
8.1 Stator Frame and Casing.
8.2 Stator Core.
8.3 Stator Windings.
8.4 Phase Connectors and Terminals.
8.5 Hydrogen Coolers: Heat Exchanger Cleanliness and Leaks.
9 ROTOR INSPECTION.
9.1 Rotor Cleanliness.
9.3 Fretting/Movement at Interference-Fit Surfaces of Wedges and Rings.
9.4 Centering (Balance) Rings.
9.5 Fan-Rings or Hubs.
9.6 Fan Blades.
9.7 Bearings and Journals.
9.8 Balance Weights and Bolts.
9.9 End Wedges and Damper Windings.
9.10 Other Wedges.
9.11 End-Windings and Main Leads.
9.12 Collector Rings.
9.13 Collector Ring Insulation.
9.14 Bore Copper and Radial (Vertical) Terminal Stud Connectors.
9.15 Brush-Spring Pressure and General Condition.
9.17 Shaft Voltage Discharge (Grounding) Brushes.
9.18 Rotor Winding Main Lead Hydrogen Sealing—Inner and Outer.
9.19 Circumferential Pole Slots (Body Flex Slots).
9.20 Blocked Rotor Radial Vent Holes—Shifting of Winding and/or Insulation.
9.21 Couplings and Coupling Bolts.
9.22 Bearing Insulation.
9.23 Hydrogen Seals.
9.24 Rotor Body Zone Rings.
10 AUXILIARIES INSPECTION.
10.1 Lube-Oil System.
10.2 Hydrogen Cooling System.
10.3 Seal-Oil System.
10.4 Stator Cooling Water System.
11 GENERATOR MAINTENANCE TESTING.
11.1 Stator Core Mechanical Tests.
11.2 Stator Core Electrical Tests.
11.3 Stator Winding Mechanical Tests.
11.4 Water-Cooled Stator Winding Tests.
11.5 Stator Winding Electrical Tests.
11.6 Rotor Mechanical Testing.
11.7 Rotor Electrical Testing.
11.8 Hydrogen Seals.
11.10 Thermal Sensitivity Test and Analysis.
12.1 General Maintenance Philosophies.
12.2 Operational and Maintenance History.
12.3 Maintenance Intervals/Frequency.
12.4 Type of Maintenance.
12.5 Spare Parts.
"…a collection of practical information dealing with the operation, inspection, and maintenance and troubleshooting of large turbine generating units." (E-STREAMS, April 2005)