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Operational Analysis and Prediction of Ocean Wind Waves

Operational Analysis and Prediction of Ocean Wind Waves

M. L. Khandekar

ISBN: 978-1-118-66391-2

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

214 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Coastal and Estuarine Studies, Volume 33.

This monograph is an attempt to compile the present state of knowledge on ocean wave analysis and prediction. The emphasis of the monograph is on the development of ocean wave analysis and prediction procedures and their utility for real-time operations and applications. Most of the material in the monograph is derived from journal articles, research reports and recent conference proceedings; some of the basic material is extracted from standard text books on physical oceanography and wind waves.

Ocean wave analysis and prediction is becoming an important activity in the meteorological and oceanographic services of many countries. The present status of ocean wave prediction may be comparable to the status of numerical weather prediction of the mid-sixties and early seventies when a number of weather prediction models were developed for research purposes, many of which were later put into operational use by meteorological services of several countries. The increased emphasis on sea-state analysis and prediction has created a need for a ready reference material on various ocean wave analysis and modelling techniques and their utility. The present monograph is aimed at fulfilling this need. The monograph should prove useful to the ocean wave modelling community as well as to marine forecasters, coastal engineers and offshore technologists. The monograph could also be used for a senior undergraduate (or a first year graduate) level course in ocean wave modelling and marine meteorology.

Chapter 1  INTRODUCTION  1
1.1 Scope of the monograph  4
References  5

Chapter 2  BASIC WAVE DYNAMICS  6
2.1 Phase speed solution for a surface wave  7
2.2 Internal and capillary waves 14
2.3 Finite amplitude waves 20
2.4 Group wave speed and wave energy 23
References 26

Chapter 3 WAVE GENERATION, PROPAGATION AND DISSIPATION 28
3.1 Historical notes 28
3.2 Early theories of Kelvin, Helmholtz and Jeffreys 28
3.3 Wave generation and growth by linear processes 31
3.4 Wave growth by nonlinear interactions 36
3.5 Wave propagation and dissipation 38
References 40

Chapter 4 WAVE PREDICTION: EARLY WAVE PREDICTION TECHNIQUES 43
4.1 General comments 43
4.2 Significant wave method 47
4.3 Wave spectrum method 55
4.4 Wave spectrum formulation 62
References 65

Chapter 5 PREDICTION: 68
5.1 General comments 68
5.2 Discrete spectral wave models 69
5.3 Parametric and hybrid wave models 79
5.4 Coupled discrete wave models 88
5.5 Third generation wave models 98
References 101

Chapter 6 WAVE PREDICTION IN SHALLOW WATER 104
6.1 General comments 104
6.2 Review of earlier work 104
6.3 Spectral approach 110
6.4 Inclusion of shallow-water effects in operational wave analysis and prediction 118
References 124

Chapter 7 VALIDATION OF WAVE MODELS 127
7.1 General comments 127
7.2 Evaluation of individual wave models 127
7.3 Intercomparison of wave models 137
7.4 Wave model intercomparison during CASP 144
7.5 Summary 163
References 163

Chapter 8 WIND SPECIFICATION FOR WAVE ANALYSIS AND PREDICTION 165
8.1 Cardone's procedure 165
8.2 Wind specification for operational wave models 169
8.3 Examples of wind specification differences; results from CASP 171
References 176

Chapter 9 WAVE ANALYSIS, OPERATIONS AND APPLICATIONS 179
9.1 General comments 179
9.2 Analysis of wave records 180
9.3 Wave products and wave climatology 184
9.4 Extreme wave statistics 190
9.5 Real-time wave analysis and prediction 192
References 201

Chapter 10 SUMMARY AND FUTURE OUTLOOK 204
10.1 General comments 204
10.2 Present status of operational wave models Wave model initialization 205
10.3 Wave model initialization 205
10.4 Wave modelling in shallow water and in nearshore region 206
10.5 Future outlook 207
References 208

Subject Index 209