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Optical and Microwave Technologies for Telecommunication Networks

Optical and Microwave Technologies for Telecommunication Networks

Otto Strobel

ISBN: 978-1-119-11485-7

Apr 2016

520 pages

Description

This is a self-contained book on the foundations and applications of optical and microwave technologies to telecommunication networks application, with an emphasis on access, local, road, cars, trains, vessels and airplanes, indoor and in-car data transmission as well as for long-distance fiber-systems and application in outer space and automation technology. The book provides a systematic discussion of physics/optics, electromagnetic wave theory, optical fibre technology, and the potential and limitations of optical and microwave transmission.

 

Preface xi

1 Introduction 1

2 Optical and Microwave Fundamentals 11

2.1 Free Space Propagation of Electromagnetic Waves 11

2.2 Interference 16

2.3 Coherence 17

2.4 Polarization 21

2.5 Refraction and Reflection 27

2.6 Diffraction 31

3 Optical Fibers 35

3.1 Attenuation in Glass Fibers 47

3.1.1 Attenuation Mechanisms in Glass Fibers 48

3.1.2 Attenuation Measurement Techniques 51

3.2 Dispersions in Fibers 55

3.2.1 Dispersion Mechanisms in Fibers 56

3.2.2 Polarization Mode Dispersion in Single-Mode Fibers 63

3.2.3 Joint Action of Dispersion Mechanisms 65

3.2.4 Dispersion Measurement Techniques 68

3.2.5 Partial Dispersion Suppression by Soliton Transmission in Single-Mode Fibers 70

4 Fiber Manufacturing, Cabling and Coupling 75

4.1 Fiber Manufacturing 75

4.1.1 Preparation of a Preform 75

4.1.2 Fiber Drawing 82

4.1.3 Mechanical Properties of Optical Fibers 83

4.1.4 Alternative Fiber Manufacturing Processes 85

4.2 Fiber Cabling 86

4.2.1 Fibers for Telecom and Data Networks 86

4.2.2 Cables: Applications, Operating Conditions and Requirements 94

4.2.3 Fiber Protection and Identification in Cables 100

4.2.4 Indoor Cables 108

4.2.5 Duct Cables 111

4.2.6 Aerial Cables 116

4.2.7 Optical Ground Wires 117

4.2.8 Fiber Cabling Summary 119

4.3 Coupling Elements for Fiber-Optic Systems 119

4.3.1 Light Source-to-Fiber Coupling 120

4.3.2 Fiber-to-Fiber Coupling 126

4.3.3 Fiber-Optic Splices 130

4.3.4 Fiber-Optic Connectors 131

4.3.5 Fiber-Optic Couplers 133

4.3.6 Fiber-Optic Switches 137

4.3.7 Fiber-to-Detector Coupling 137

5 Integrated-Optic Components 139

5.1 Integrated-Optic Waveguides 140

5.2 Integrated-Optic Modulators 141

5.3 Integrated-Optic Polarizers 145

5.4 Integrated-Optic Filters 146

5.5 Losses in Integrated-Optic Devices 148

6 Optical Light Sources and Drains 149

6.1 Semiconductor Light Sources 154

6.1.1 Light Emitting Diodes 156

6.1.2 Semiconductor Lasers 160

6.1.3 Organic Lasers 185

6.2 Semiconductor Light Drains 185

6.2.1 Types of Photodiodes 188

7 Optical Transmitter and Receiver Circuit Design 197

7.1 Optical Transmitter Circuit Design 197

7.2 Optical Receiver Circuit Design 199

7.2.1 Receiver Circuit Concepts 201

7.2.2 Noise in Optical Receivers 206

8 Fiber-Optic Amplifiers 209

8.1 Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers 209

8.2 Fiber Raman Amplifiers 211

9 Fiber- and Wireless-Optic Data Transmission 215

9.1 Direct Transmission Systems as Point-to-Point Connections 217

9.1.1 Unidirectional, Bidirectional and Multichannel Systems 225

9.2 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM) Systems 227

9.2.1 Approaches to Increase Channel Capacity 227

9.2.2 Fundamentals of OFDM 229

9.2.3 Implementation Options for Coherent Optical OFDM 230

9.2.4 Nyquist Pulse Shaping as an Alternative to OFDM Systems 232

9.3 Optical Satellite Communications 233

9.3.1 Applications of Optical Satellite Communications 234

9.3.2 Channel Characteristics and Technical Issues 236

9.4 Coherent Transmission Systems 241

9.4.1 Main Principle of Coherent Transmission 241

9.4.2 System Components 245

9.4.3 Modulation Methods for Coherent Transmission Systems 247

9.4.4 Detection and Demodulation Methods for Coherent Transmission Systems 248

9.5 Top Results on Fiber-Optic Transmission Capacity for High-Speed Long Distance 251

9.6 Optical Fibers in Automation Technology 255

9.6.1 Optical Fiber Cables 255

9.6.2 Connectors 257

9.6.3 Network and Network Components 257

10 Last Mile Systems, In-House-Networks, LAN- and MAN-Applications 263

10.1 Last Mile Systems 269

10.1.1 Special Case of Access Network 270

10.1.2 Fiber Access Networks 271

10.1.3 FTTB Networks 275

10.1.4 Point-to-Point FTTH Networks 277

10.1.5 Passive Optical Networks (PON) 280

10.1.6 WDM-PON Networks 285

10.1.7 Upgrade and Migration Issues in FTTH Networks 286

10.1.8 Passive Fiber Plant 288

10.1.9 Development and standardization of FTTH technologies 297

10.1.10 Active Equipment 300

10.1.11 Conclusions 305

10.2 Polymer Optical Fibers, POF 306

10.2.1 Basics of POF 306

10.2.2 Techniques for Data Transmission over POF 312

10.2.3 In-House Communications 319

10.2.4 Communications in Transportation Systems: From Automotive to Spatial 321

10.2.5 Standardization Activities 325

10.3 Radio over Fiber (RoF) Systems 328

10.3.1 Key Enabling Technologies 331

10.3.2 RoF Land Network Design 337

10.3.3 Case Study of the Proposed Design Framework 344

10.3.4 Conclusions 349

10.4 Free Space Optical Communications 349

10.4.1 FSO under Turbulence Conditions 352

10.4.2 System Set-up 356

10.4.3 System Performance under Weak Turbulence 358

10.4.4 FSO Link Evaluation 361

10.4.5 Relation to Outdoor FSO Link 363

10.4.6 FSO under Fog Conditions 364

10.4.7 Characterization of Fog and Smoke Attenuation in a Laboratory Chamber 366

10.4.8 Fog and Smoke Channel – Experiment Set-up 367

10.4.9 Results and Discussion 369

10.4.10 Conclusions 376

10.5 WLAN Systems and Fiber Networks 377

10.5.1 A Historical Perspective on IEEE 802.11 WLANs 380

10.5.2 Relevant Operating Principles of WLAN Systems 386

10.5.3 Hybrid Fiber-Wireless Network Architectures: Wi-Fi-based FiWi Architectures 392

10.6 Energy Efficiency Aspects in Optical Access and Core Networks 399

10.6.1 Energy Efficiency in Current and Next Generation Optical Access Networks 399

10.6.2 Energy Efficient Time Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Networks 400

10.6.3 Energy Efficient Time and Wavelength Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Networks 406

10.6.4 Spectral and Energy Efficiency Considerations in Single Rate WDM Networks with Signal Quality Guarantee 413

10.6.5 Spectral versus Energy Efficiency in Mixed-Line Rate WDM Systems with Signal Quality Guarantee 420

10.6.6 Results and Discussion 423

11 Optical Data-Bus and Microwave Systems for Automotive Application in Vehicles, Airplanes and Ships 427

11.1 Communication in Transportation Systems 427

11.1.1 Communication Needs in Transportation Systems 428

11.1.2 Communication with Transportation Systems 433

11.1.3 Hybrid Networks for use in Transportation Systems 435

11.2 Radar for Transportation Systems 438

11.2.1 ARVS Main Features 441

11.2.2 Features of ARVS Equipment Construction 446

11.2.3 Main Tasks and Processing Methods of Radar Data in the ARVS 455

11.2.4 Main Problems and Tasks of ARVS Development 460

11.2.5 Conclusions 461

References 463

Index 497