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Optomechanical Systems Engineering

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Optomechanical Systems Engineering

Keith J. Kasunic

ISBN: 978-1-118-91961-3 April 2015 272 Pages

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Description

Covers the fundamental principles behind optomechanical design

This book emphasizes a practical, systems-level overview of optomechanical engineering, showing throughout how the requirements on the optical system flow down to those on the optomechanical design. The author begins with an overview of optical engineering, including optical fundamentals as well as the fabrication and alignment of optical components such as lenses and mirrors. The concepts of optomechanical engineering are then applied to the design of optical systems, including the structural design of mechanical and optical components, structural dynamics, thermal design, and kinematic design.

 Optomechanical Systems Engineering:

  • Reviews the fundamental concepts of optical engineering as they apply to optomechanical design
  • Illustrates the fabrication and alignment requirements typically found in an optical system
  • Examines the elements of structural design from a mechanical, optical, and vibrational viewpoint
  • Develops the thermal management principles of temperature and distortion control
  • Describes the optomechanical requirements for kinematic and semi-kinematic mounts
  • Uses examples and case studies to illustrate the concepts and equations presented in the book
  • Provides supplemental materials on a companion website

Focusing on fundamental concepts and first-order estimates of optomechanical system performance, Optomechanical Systems Engineering is accessible to engineers, scientists, and managers who want to quickly master the principles of optomechanical engineering.

Preface ix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Optomechanical Systems, 2

1.2 Optomechanical Engineering, 4

1.3 Optomechanical Systems Engineering, 9

References, 15

2 Optical Fundamentals 17

2.1 Geometrical Optics, 18

2.2 Image Quality, 26

Problems, 33

References, 34

3 Optical Fabrication 35

3.1 Index of Refraction, 38

3.2 Surface Curvature, 41

3.3 Surface Figure, 43

3.4 Surface Finish, 48

3.5 Surface Quality, 49

3.6 Center Thickness, 50

3.7 Wedge, 51

3.8 Clear Aperture, 53

Problems, 54

References, 55

4 Optical Alignment 57

4.1 Types of Misalignments, 58

4.1.1 Tilt, 59

4.1.2 Decenter, 61

4.1.3 Despace, 62

4.1.4 Defocus, 62

4.2 Alignment Requirements, 64

4.3 Correction and Mitigation, 66

4.4 Pointing and Boresighting, 70

Problems, 75

References, 76

5 Structural Design—Mechanical Elements 77

5.1 Stress, Strain, and Stiffness, 78

5.2 Mechanics, 82

5.3 Beam Stresses and Strains, 85

5.3.1 Bending Stresses, 86

5.3.2 Bending Strain, 89

5.3.3 Shear Stresses and Strains, 94

5.4 Structural Geometries, 95

5.5 Structural Materials, 99

5.5.1 Specific Stiffness, 100

5.5.2 Microcreep, 102

5.5.3 Materials Selection, 103

Problems, 104

References, 105

6 Structural Design—Optical Components 107

6.1 Structural Plates, 109

6.1.1 Windows, Lenses, and Mirrors, 109

6.1.2 Poisson’s Ratio, 111

6.1.3 Plate Bending, 113

6.1.4 Contact Stresses, 115

6.1.5 Stress Concentrations, 120

6.2 Glass Strength, 122

6.2.1 Fracture Toughness, 122

6.2.2 Weibull Statistics, 126

Problems, 130

References, 131

7 Structural Design—Vibrations 133

7.1 Sinusoidal Vibrations, 137

7.1.1 Free Vibrations, 137

7.1.2 Forced Vibrations, 140

7.1.3 Damping, 142

7.2 Random Vibrations, 146

7.3 Continuous Systems, 150

7.4 Structural Design and Materials Selection, 157

7.5 Vibration Isolation, 159

7.6 Vibration Compensation, 166

Problems, 168

References, 169

8 Thermal Design 171

8.1 Thermostructural Design, 173

8.1.1 Thermal Expansion, 173

8.1.2 Thermal Stress, 178

8.2 Thermo‐Optic and Stress‐Optic Effects, 181

8.2.1 Thermo‐Optic Effect, 182

8.2.2 Stress‐Optic Effect, 185

8.3 Heat Transfer, 187

8.3.1 Conduction, 187

8.3.2 Convection, 193

8.3.3 Radiation, 196

8.4 Thermal Management, 201

8.4.1 Heaters, 202

8.4.2 Fans, 203

8.4.3 Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs), 203

8.4.4 Thermoelectric Coolers (TECs), 204

8.5 Material Properties and Selection, 205

8.5.1 Thermal Expansion, 206

8.5.2 Thermal Distortion, 207

8.5.3 Thermal Mass, 208

8.5.4 Thermal Diffusivity, 209

8.5.5 Thermal Shock, 210

Problems, 211

References, 212

9 Kinematic Design 215

9.1 Kinematic and Semi‐Kinematic Mounts, 216

9.2 Optical Component Mounts, 222

9.3 Positioning and Alignment Mechanisms, 227

9.4 Material Properties and Selection, 233

Problems, 235

References, 235

10 System Design 237

10.1 STOP Analysis, 239

10.2 WFE and Zernike Polynomials, 243

10.3 Material Trades, 246

References, 250

Index 251

“The whole book is written in a very accessible style, and there are plenty of good exercises for the reader. It would be a good resource for engineers and research students entering the field.”  (Optics & Photonics News, 4 September 2015)