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Organic Photovoltaics: Materials, Device Physics, and Manufacturing Technologies, 2nd Edition

E-Book

$202.99

Organic Photovoltaics: Materials, Device Physics, and Manufacturing Technologies, 2nd Edition

Christoph Brabec (Editor), Ullrich Scherf (Editor), Vladimir Dyakonov (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-65693-6 February 2014 642 Pages

Description

The versatility of organic photovoltaics is already well known and this completely revised,
updated, and enlarged edition of a classic provides an up-to-date overview of this hot
topic.

The proven structure of the successful first edition, divided into the three key aspects
of successful device design: materials, device physics, and manufacturing technologies,
has been retained. Important aspects such as printing technologies, substrates, and electrode
systems are covered. The result is a balanced, comprehensive text on the fundamentals
as well as the latest results in the area that will set R&D trends for years to come.

With its combination of both academic and commercial technological views, this is
an optimal source of information for scientists, engineers, and graduate students already
actively working in this field, and looking for comprehensive summaries on specific topics.

PART I: Materials for Thin Film Organic Photovoltaics

OVERVIEW OF POLYMER AND COPOLYMER MATERIALS FOR ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS
Introduction
Early Efforts
Toward Devices with 5% Efficiencies
Novel Thiopene-Containing Polymers
Fluorene-Containing Molecules
Carbazole-Based Copolymers
New Heterocyclic Polymers
Polymers Based on Other Types of Building Blocks
Conclusions

THIOPHENE-BASED HIGH-PERFORMANCE DONOR POLYMERS FOR ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS
Introduction
Bandgap Engineering
Charge Generation in Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells
Polyalkylthiophenes
Polyalkylthiophene/PCBM Blends
Polythiophene Copolymers
Side Chain Functionalized P3AT Derivatives
Third-Generation Polythiophenes
Thiophene-Based Push?Pull Copolymers
Benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-Based Polymers
Cyclopental[2,1-b:3,4-b']dithiophene-Based Polymers
Indacenodithiophene-Based Polymers
Conclusion and Outlook

MOLECULAR DESIGN OF CONJUGATED POLYMERS FOR HIGH-EFFICIENCY SOLAR CELLS
Introduction
Structural Features of Conjugated Polymers
"D-A" Approach
Quinoid Approach
Summary and Outlook

SOLUTION-PROCESSED MOLECULAR BULK HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS
Introduction
Monochromophoric Molecules
Multichromophoric Molecules
Summary and Future Directions

VACUUM-PROCESSED DONOR MATERIALS FOR ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS
Introduction
Planar and Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells
Summary and Future Prospects

POLYMER-NANOCRYSTAL HYBRID SOLAR CELLS
Introduction
Semiconductor Nanocrystals
Working Principles and Device Structure
Evolution of Polymer-NC Hybrid Solar Cells
Recent Approaches for Overcoming Current Limitations
Novel Concepts and Perspectives
Summary and Outlook

FULLEREN-BASED ACCEPTOR MATERIALS
Introduction and Overview
Fullerenes as n-Type Semiconductors
Fullerene Derivatives
Derivatives of C70 and C84
Fullerene Bisadducts
Endohedral Compounds
Commercialization of Fullerene Derivatives

POLYMERIC ACCEPTOR SEMICONDUCTORS FOR ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS
Introduction
Basics Principles and Operation for Organic Solar Cells
Polymeric Acceptor Semiconductors
Conclusions and Perspective

WATER/ALCOHOL-SOLUBLE CONJUGATED POLYMER-BASED INTERLAYERS FOR POLYMER SOLAR CELLS
Introduction
The Development of Water/Alcohol-Soluble Conjugated Polymers as Interlayer Materials
Interface Engineering for Polymer Solar Cells
Discussion of the Working Mechanism
Summary

METAL OXIDE INTERLAYERS FOR POLYMER SOLAR CELLS
Introduction
Conventional Structure
Inverted Structure
Tandem Structure
Additional Oxides (Cr2O3, CuOx, PbO)
Conclusions

PART II: Device Physics of Thin Film Organic Photovoltaics

BIMOLECULAR AND TRAP-ASSISTED RECOMBINATION IN ORGANIC BULK HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS
Introduction
Recombination at Open Circuit
Trap-Assisted Recombination at Open Circuit
Investigation of the Nature Recombination by Electroluminescence Measurements
Bimolecular Recombination Strength in Organic BHJ Solar Cells
Bimolecular Recombination Losses Under Short-Circuit Conditions
Effect of Bimolecular Recombination on Fill Factor and Efficiency
Conclusions

ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAIC MORPHOLOGY
Introduction
Order in Bulk Heterojunctions
Nanoscale Morphology in Bulk Heterojunctions
Phases in a Bulk Heterojunction
Structure of the Interface between Phases
In Situ Measurements of Morphology Development

INTERCALATION IN POLYMER:FULLERENE BLENDS
Introduction
Methods for Detecting Molecular Mixing
Factors Affecting Molecular Mixing
The Effect of Molecular Mixing on Electronic Properties and Solar Cells
Conclusions

ORGANIC TANDEM SOLAR CELLS
Introduction and Working Principle
Measurement Techniques
Efficient Intermediate Charge Carrier Recombination
Light Management
Choice of Materials
Parallel Tandem Architectures
New Tandem Solar Cell Concepts
Conclusions

SOLID-STATE DYE-SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS
Introduction
Working Principles of Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Loss Mechanims in Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells with Spiro-OMeTAD as Hole Conductor
Hybrid Solar Cells with Absorbing Hole Conductors
Ordered Nanostructures for Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Summary and Outlook

PART III: Technology for Thin Film Organic PV

REEL-TO-REEL PROCESSING OF HIGHLY CONDUCTIVE METAL OXIDES
Introduction
Materials
Deposition Technology
Equipment
Alternative Approaches

FLEXIBLE SUBSTRATE REQUIREMENTS FOR ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS
Introduction
Polyester Substrates
Properties of Base Substrates
Concluding Remarks

ADHESIVES FOR ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAIC PACKAGING
Introduction
Encapsulation Process for Organic Photovoltaics
Chemistry Aspects of Barier Adhesives
Barrier Performance of OPV Adhesives
Conclusions

ROLL-TO-ROLL PROCESSING OF POLYMER SOLAR CELLS
Introduction
The Roll-to-Roll Process
Structure of Modules
Coating and Printing Techniques for PSC Materials
Roll-tol-Roll Printing of Electrodes
R2R Encapsulation
Roll-to-Roll Characterization
Future and Outlook

CURRENT AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN ORGANIC PHOTOVOLTAICS
Scientific and Technological Aspects
Commercial Applications
Challenges and Major Hurdles

Index