About the Author
Padhraig Fleming is Senior Clinical Lecturer and Consultant Orthodontist at Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK. He is an Associate Editor of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics and the Journal of Dentistry and a co-author of Clinical Cases in Orthodontics (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012). Padhraig was awarded the Dewel Prize by the American Association of Orthodontists in 2011. He has been involved in numerous clinical trials investigating the relative merits of a range of orthodontic appliances and techniques.
Robert Lee is Honorary Professor and Consultant at Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, UK. Having founded the postgraduate training programme at The Royal London Hospital in 1983, Robert has been the Director of Specialist Training for Barts Health NHS Trust, Chairman of the Examiners in Orthodontics of The Royal College of Surgeons in England and Chairman of the Specialist Advisory Committee for Orthodontics. He has been undertaking clinical trials on functional appliances as his main research interest for more than 20 years.