DescriptionPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), or polyarenes, are one of the largest and most structurally diverse class of organic molecules known. High percentages of polyarenes, representing a wide range of molecular sizes and structural types, are present in coal tars and petroleum residues. The major sources of PAHs are crude oil, coal and oil shale. The fuels produced from these fossil sources constitute the primary source of energy for the industrial nations of the world, and the petrochemicals from these raw materials are the basis of the synthetic fibre and plastics industries. PAHs are however, widespread pollutants and their impact on the environment and human health must be monitored and controlled.
This book will review and assess our scientific understanding of the ecological exposure and effects PAHs have in different environments and habitats. It will accomplish this by taking the recipients of the pollution in the environment as starting points and working its way back through pathways to access what is required for our understanding of effects and rationale for control.
Although this book will concentrate on ecological exposure of PAHs, the general impacts of PAHs on human populations will be touched upon. It is thought to be the first book to focus on the ecological aspects of PAHs.
Part I: Introduction and Rationale.
Introduction (P. Douben).
Part II: General Characteristics of PAHs.
The Sources, Transport, and Fate of PAHs in the Marine Environment (J. Latimer and J. Zheng).
Geochemistry of PAHs in Aquatic Environments: Source, Persistence and Distribution (R. Burgess, et al.).
Photochemical Reactions of PAHs in the Atmosphere (J. Arey and R. Atkinson).
Metabolic Activation of PAHs: Role of DNA Adduct Formation in Induced Carcinogenesis (F. Akcha, et al.).
Biodegradation and General Aspects of Bioavailability (F. Volkering and A. Breure).
Part III Bioavailability, Exposure and Effects in Environmental Compartments.
An Overview of the Partitioning and Bioavailability of PAHs in Sediments and Soils (R. Burgess, et al.).
Bioavailability, Uptake and Effects of PAHs in Aquatic Invertebrates in Field Studies (P. den Besten, et al.).
Bioaccumulation of PAHs in Marine Invertebrates (J. Meador).
Uptake and Accumulation of PAHs by Terrestrial Invertebrates (R. Achazi and C. Van Gestel).
Ecotoxicological Studies Focusing on Marine and Freshwater Fish (J. Payne, et al.).
Effects of PAHs on Terrestrial and Freshwater Birds, Mammals and Amphibians (H. Malcolm & R. Shore).
Effects of PAHs on Marine Birds, Mammals and Reptiles (P. Albers and T. Loughlin).
PAH Interactions with Plants: Uptake, Toxicity and Phytoremediation (B. Greenberg).
Assessing Risks from Photoactivated Toxicity of PAHs to Aquatic Organisms (G. Ankley, et al.).
Biomarkers and PAHs — Prospects for the Assessment of Exposure and Effects in Aquatic Systems (R. Altenburger, et al.).
Part IV Integration of Information on PAHs.
Approaches to Developing Sediment Quality Guidelines for PAHs (D. Mount, et al.).
Managing Risks from PAHs (G. Whale, et al.).