Skip to main content

Particle Adhesion and Removal

Particle Adhesion and Removal

K. L. Mittal, Ravi Jaiswal

ISBN: 978-1-118-83157-1

Feb 2015

576 pages

Description

The book provides a comprehensive and easily accessible reference source covering all important aspects of particle adhesion and removal.  The core objective is to cover both fundamental and applied aspects of particle adhesion and removal with emphasis on recent developments.

 Among the topics to be covered include:

1. Fundamentals of surface forces in particle adhesion and removal.
2. Mechanisms of particle adhesion and removal.
3. Experimental methods (e.g. AFM, SFA,SFM,IFM, etc.) to understand  particle-particle and particle-substrate interactions.
4. Mechanics of adhesion of micro- and  nanoscale particles.
5. Various factors affecting particle adhesion to a variety of substrates.
6. Surface modification techniques to modulate particle adhesion.
7. Various cleaning methods (both wet & dry) for particle removal.
8. Relevance of particle adhesion in a host of technologies ranging from simple to ultra-sophisticated.

Preface xv

Part 1: Particle Adhesion: Fundamentals 1

1 Fundamental Forces in Particle Adhesion 3
Stephen Beaudoin, Priyanka Jaiswal, Aaron Harrison, Jennifer Laster, Kathryn Smith, Melissa Sweat, and Myles Thomas

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Various Forces in Particle Adhesion 4

1.3 Summary 69

References 70

2 Mechanics of Particle Adhesion and Removal 81
Goodarz Ahmadi

2.1 Introduction 81

2.2 Models 83

2.3 Simulations Results 96

2.4 Summary and Conclusions 99

Acknowledgements 100

References 100

3 Microscopic Particle Contact Adhesion Models and Macroscopic Behavior of Surface Modified Particles 105
Katja Mader-Arndt, Zinaida Kutelova, and Jürgen Tomas

3.1 Introduction 105

3.2 Constitutive Contact Models 107

3.3 Macroscopic Powder Behavior – Continuum Mechanics Approach 121

3.4 Surface Modification to Alter the Adhesion Properties 124

3.5 Experimental Measurements of the Adhesion Forces 130

3.6 Summary and Conclusions 146

Acknowledgements 147

List of Symbols 147

References 148

4 Characterization of Single Particle Adhesion: A Review of Recent Progress 157
Armin Saeedi Vahdat and Cetin Cetinkaya

4.1 Introduction 157

4.2 Background 159

4.3 Recent Developments 167

4.4 Conclusions and Remarks 193

Acknowledgments 194

List of Symbols 194

References 196

Part 2: Particle Removal Techniques 201

5 High Intensity Ultrasonic Cleaning for Particle Removal 203
Sami B. Awad and Nadia F. Awad

5.1 Introduction 204

5.2 Ultrasound and Ultrasonics 204

5.3 Cavitation Phenomenon 207

5.4 Generation of Ultrasound - Transducers 211

5.5 Ultrasonic Generators 217

5.6 Principles of Ultrasonic Cleaning for Particle Removal 219

5.7 Determination of Residual Particles on Surfaces 223

5.8 Ultrasonic Aqueous Cleaning Equipment and Process 225

5.9 Precision Cleaning 228

5.10 Contaminants 228

5.11 Ultrasonic Cavitation Forces and Surface Cleaning 230

5.12 Cleaning Chemistry 232

5.13 Mechanism of Cleaning 236

5.14 Cavitation Erosion 238

5.15 Summary 239

References 239

6 Megasonic Cleaning for Particle Removal 243
Manish Keswani, Rajesh Balachandran, and Pierre Deymier

6.1 Introduction 243

6.2 Principles of Megasonic Cleaning 247

6.3 Particle Removal Mechanisms During Megasonic Cleaning 259

6.4 Types of Megasonic Systems 262

6.5 Particle Removal and Feature Damage in Megasonic Cleaning 264

6.6 Summary 274

References 274

7 High Speed Air Jet Removal of Particles from Solid Surfaces 281
Kuniaki Gotoh

7.1 Introduction 281

7.2 Fundamental Characteristics of the Air Jet 282

7.3 Fundamentals of Air Jet Particle Removal 286

7.4 New Methods Using Air Jet 300

7.5 Summary and Prospect 307

List of Symbols 308

References 309

8 Droplet Spray Technique for Particle Removal 313
James T. Snow, Masanobu Sato, and Takayoshi Tanaka

8.1 Introduction 313

8.2 Droplet Impact Phenomena 314

8.3 Cleaning Process Window 318

8.4 Droplet Spray Technique for Semiconductor Wafer Cleaning 324

8.5 Summary 331

References 331

9. Laser-Induced High-Pressure Micro-Spray Process for Nanoscale Particle Removal 337
Daehwan Ahn, Changho Seo, and Dongsik Kim

9.1 Introduction 337

9.2 Concept of Droplet Opto-Hydrodynamic Cleaning (DOC) 340

9.3 Micro-Spray Generation by LIB 343

9.4 Mechanisms of Particle Removal by Laser-Induced Spray Jet 344

9.5 Generation of Micro-Spray Jet 345

9.6 Nanoscale Particle Removal 352

9.7 Summary 360

References 360

10 Wiper-Based Cleaning of Particles from Surfaces 365
Brad Lyon and Jay Postlewaite

10.1 Introduction 366

10.2 Basic Mechanism of Wiping for Cleaning of Particles and Other Contaminants 371

10.3 Various Types of Wipers 379

10.4 Proper Ways to Carry Out Wiping or How to Use Wipers Properly 390

10.5 Characterization of Wipers 396

10.6 Results Obtained Using Wiping 398

10.7 Future Directions 405

10.8 Summary 406

References 408

11 Application of Strippable Coatings for Removal of Particulate Contaminants 411
Rajiv Kohli

11.1 Introduction 411

11.2 Coating Description 412

11.3 Types of Strippable Coatings 413

11.4 Issues with Strippable Coatings 426

11.5 Precision Cleaning Applications 427

11.6 Summary 443

Disclaimer 443

References 443

12 Cryoaerosol Cleaning of Particles from Surfaces 453
Souvik Banerjee

12.1 Introduction 453

12.2 History of Cryoaerosol Cleaning 455

12.3 Thermodynamics of Cryoaerosol Processes 456

12.4 Cleaning Mechanism 461

12.5 Factors Affecting Cleaning Performance 462

12.6 Results Obtained by Cryoaerosol Cleaning  469

12.7 Summary and Prospects 473

References 474

13 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Cleaning: Relevance to Particle Removal 477
Rajiv Kohli

13.1 Introduction 477

13.2 Surface Cleanliness Levels 478

13.3 Dense Phase Fluids 479

13.4 Principles of Supercritical CO2 Cleaning 489

13.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Supercritical CO2 Cleaning 493

13.6 Applications 496

13.7 Summary and Conclusions  502

Acknowledgement 503

Disclaimer 503

References 503

14 The Use of Surfactants to Enhance Particle Removal from Surfaces 519
Brian Grady

14.1 Introduction 519

14.2 Solid-Solid Interactions 520

14.3 Introduction to Surfactants 524

14.4 Surfactant Adsorption at Solid Surfaces 529

14.5 Surfactants and Particulate Removal 535

14.6 Prospects 539

14.7 Summary 540

Acknowledgements 540

References 540

Index 543