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Personality: Theory and Research, 13th Edition

Personality: Theory and Research, 13th Edition

Daniel Cervone, Lawrence A. Pervin

ISBN: 978-1-119-16116-5

Oct 2015

552 pages

$47.50

Description

The 13th Edition of Cervone's Personality: Theory and Research significantly updates and expands on previous editions of this classic text. New to this edition, Personality and the Brain coverage throughout the text shows readers how cutting-edge advances in neuroscience  inform all aspects of personality theory and research. Cervone and Pervins, 13th edition provides uniquely  up-to-date coverage of contemporary personality science while  continuing to ground the student in the field's classic, and  contemporary, theoretical statements.

Related Resources

Preface

Chapter 1 Personality Theory: From Everyday Observations to Systematic Theories

Questions To Be Addressed In This Chapter

Five Goals for the Personality Theorist

Why Study Personality?

Defining Personality

Questions about Persons: What, How, and Why

Answering Questions about Persons Scientifically: Understanding Structures, Processes, Development, and Therapeutic Change

Structure

Process

Growth and Development

Genetic Determinants

Environmental Determinants

Psychopathology and Behavior Change

Important Issues in Personality Theory

Philosophical View of the Person

Internal and External Determinants of Behavior

Consistency across Situations and Over Time

The Unity of Experience and Action and the Concept of Self

Varying States of Awareness and the Concept of the Unconscious

The Influence of the Past, Present, and Future on Behavior

Can We Have A Science Of Personality? What Kind Of A Science Can It Be?

Evaluating Personality Theories

The Personality Theories: An Introduction

The Challenge of Constructing a Personality Theory

The Personality Theories: A Preliminary Sketch

On The Existence of Multiple Theories: Theories As Toolkits

Major Concepts

Review

Chapter 2 The Scientific Study of People

Questions To Be Addressed In This Chapter

The Data of Personality Psychology

Lots of Data

How Do Data From Different Sources Relate To One Another?

Fixed Versus Flexible Measures

Personality and Brain Data

Personality Theory And Assessment

Goals of Research: Reliability, Validity, Ethical Behavior

Reliability

Validity

The Ethics of Research and Public Policy

Three General Strategies to Research

Case Studies

Case Studies: An Example

Correlational Studies

Correlational Research: An Example

Experiments

Evaluating Alternative Research Approaches

Case Studies and Clinical Research: Strengths and Limitations

Correlational Research and Questionnaires: Strengths and Limitations

Laboratory, Experimental Research: Strengths and Limitations

Summary of Strengths and Limitations

Personality Theory and Personality Research

Personality Assessment and the Case Of Jim

Major Concepts

Review

Chapter 3 A Psychodynamic Theory: Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Of Personality

Questions to Be Addressed In This Chapter

Sigmund Freud (1856–1939): A View of The Theorist

Freud’s View of the Person

The Mind as an Energy System

The Individual in Society

Freud’s View of the Science of Personality

Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality

Structure

Levels of Consciousness and the Concept of The Unconscious

Id, Ego, And Superego

Process

Life and Death Instincts

The Dynamics of Functioning

Anxiety, Mechanisms of Defense, and Contemporary Research on Defensive Processes

Growth and Development

The Development of the Instincts and Stages of Development

The Development of Thinking Processes

Major Concepts

Review

Chapter 4 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, and Contemporary Research

Questions to Be Addressed In This Chapter

Psychodynamic Personality Assessment: Projective Tests

The Logic of Projective Tests

The Rorschach Inkblot Test

The Thematic Apperception Test (Tat)

Projective Tests: Do They Work?

Psychopathology

Personality Types

Conflict and Defense

Psychological Change

Insights into the Unconscious: Free Association and Dream Interpretation

The Therapeutic Process: Transference,

A Case Example: Little Hans

The Case of Jim

Rorschach and Thematic Apperception Test (Tat) Data

Comments on the Data

Related Theoretical Conceptions and Recent Developments

Two Early Challenges to Freud: Adler and Jung

Alfred Adler (1870–1937)

Carl G. Jung (1875–1961)

The Cultural and Interpersonal Emphasis: Horney and Sullivan

Reinterpreting Motivational Forces

Object Relations Theory

Self Psychology and Narcissism

Attachment Theory

Critical Evaluation

Scientific Observation: The Database

Theory: Systematic?

Theory: Testable?

Theory: Comprehensive?

Applications

Major Contributions and Summary

Major Concepts

Review

Chapter 5 A Phenomenological Theory: Carl Rogers’s Person-Centered Theory Of Personality

Questions To Be Addressed In This Chapter

Carl R. Rogers (1902–1987): A View of the Theorist

Rogers’s View of the Person

The Subjectivity of Experience

A Phenomenological Perspective

Rogers’s View of the Science of Personality

The Personality Theory of Carl Rogers

Structure

The Self

Measuring Self-Concept

Process

Self-Actualization

Self-Consistency and Congruence

Growth and Development

Major Concepts

Review

Chapter 6 Rogers’s Phenomenological Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, And Contemporary Research

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter

Clinical Applications

Psychopathology

Psychological Change

Outcomes of Client-Centered Therapy

Presence

A Case Example: Mrs. Oak

The Case of Jim

Related Theoretical Conceptions

The Human Potential Movement

The Positive Psychology Movement

Classifying Human Strengths

The Virtues of Positive Emotions

Flow

Existentialism

Recent Developments in Theory and Research

Discrepancies among Parts of the Self

Fluctuations in Self-Esteem and Contingencies of Worth

Authenticity and Internally Motivated Goals

Self-Determination Theory

Cross-Cultural Research on the Self

Critical Evaluation

Scientific Observation: The Database

Theory: Systematic?

Theory: Testable?

Theory: Comprehensive?

Applications

Major Contributions and Summary

Major Concepts

Review

Chapter 7 Trait Theories of Personality: Allport, Eysenck, and Cattell

Questions To Be Addressed In This Chapter

A View of the Trait Theorists

Trait Theory’s View of the Person

The Trait Concept

Trait Theory’s View of the Science of Personality

Scientific Functions Served By Trait Constructs

Trait Theories of Personality: Basic Perspectives Shared by Trait Theorists

The Trait Theory of Gordon W. Allport (1897–1967)

Traits: Personality Structure in Allport’s Theory

Functional Autonomy

Idiographic Research

Comment on Allport

Identifying Primary Trait Dimensions: Factor Analysis

The Factor-Analytic Trait Theory of Raymond B. Cattell (1905–1998)

Surface And Source Traits: Personality Structure in Cattell’s Theory

Sources of Evidence: L-Data, Q-Data, and Ot-Data

Stability and Variability in Behavior

Comment on Cattell

The Three-Factor Theory of Hans J. Eysenck (1916–1997)

’’Superfactors”: Personality Structure in Eysenck’s Theory

Measuring the Factors

Biological Bases of Personality Traits

Extraversion and Social Behavior

Psychopathology and Behavior Change

Comment on Eysenck

Major Concepts

Review

Chapter 8 Trait Theory: The Five-Factor Model; Applications and Evaluation of Trait Approaches to Personality

Questions to be Addressed in This Chapter

The Five-Factor Model of Personality: Research Evidence

Analysis of Trait Terms in Natural Language and in Questionnaires

The Fundamental Lexical Hypothesis

Cross-Cultural Research: Are The Big Five Dimensions Universal?

The Big Five in Personality Questionnaires

The Neo-Pi-R and Its Hierarchical Structure: Facets

Integration of Eysenck’s and Cattell’s Factors within the Big Five

Self-Ratings and Observer Ratings

The Five-Factor Theory

Growth and Development

Age Differences throughout Adulthood

Stability and Change in Personality

Maybe We Missed One? The Six-Factor Model

Applications of the Big Five Model

The Case of Jim

Factor-Analytic Trait-Based Assessment

Personality Stability: Jim 5 and 20 Years Later

Self-Ratings and Ratings by Wife On The Neo-Pi

The Person–Situation Controversy

Critical Evaluation

Scientific Observation: The Database

Theory: Systematic?

Theory: Testable?

Theory: Comprehensive?

Applications

Major Contributions and Summary

Major Concepts

Review

Chapter 9 Biological Foundations of Personality

Questions To Be Addressed in this Chapter

Temperament

Constitution and Temperament: Early Views

Constitution and Temperament: Longitudinal Studies

Biology, Temperament and Personality Development: Contemporary Research

Inhibited and Uninhibited Children: Research of Kagan and Colleagues

Interpreting Data on Biology and Personality

Evolution, Evolutionary Psychology, and Personality

Evolutionary Psychology

Social Exchange and the Detection of Cheating

Sex Differences: Evolutionary Origins?

Male–Female Mate Preferences

Causes of Jealousy

Evolutionary Origins Of Sex Differences: How Strong Are The Data?

Genes and Personality

Behavioral Genetics

Selective Breeding Studies

Twin Studies

Adoption Studies

Heritability Coefficient

Heritability of Personality: Findings

Some Caveats

Molecular Genetic Paradigms

Environments and Gene–Environment Interactions

Mood, Emotion, and the Brain

Left and Right Hemispheric Dominance

Neurotransmitters and Temperament: Dopamine and Serotonin

Plasticity: Biology as both Cause and Effect

Neuroscientific Investigations of “Higher-Level” Psychological Functions

Summary

Major Concepts

Review

Chapter 10 Behaviorism and the Learning Approaches to Personality

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter

Behaviorism’s View of the Person

Behaviorism’s View of the Science of Personality

Environmental Determinism and Its Implications for the Concept of Personality

Experimentation, Observable Variables, and Simple Systems

Watson, Pavlov, and Classical Conditioning

Watson’s Behaviorism

Pavlov’s Theory of Classical Conditioning

Psychopathology and Change

Skinner’s Theory of Operant Conditioning

A View of the Theorist

Skinner’s Theory of Personality

Structure

Process: Operant Conditioning

Growth and Development

Psychopathology

Behavioral Assessment

Behavior Change

Free Will?

Critical Evaluation

Scientific Observation: The Database

Theory: Systematic?

Theory: Testable?

Theory: Comprehensive?

Applications

Major Contributions and Summary

Major Concepts

Review

Chapter 11 A Cognitive Theory: George A. Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory Of Personality

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter

George A. Kelly (1905–1966): A View of the Theorist

Kelly’s View of the Science of Personality

Kelly’s View of the Person

The Personality Theory of George A. Kelly

Types of Constructs and The Construct System

Assessment: The Role Construct Repertory (Rep) Test

Unique Information Revealed By Personal Construct Testing

Cognitive Complexity/Simplicity

Process

Growth and Development

Clinical Applications

Psychopathology

Change and Fixed-Role Therapy

The Case of Jim

Rep Test: Personal Construct Theory

Comments on the Data

Related Points Of View and Recent Developments

Critical Evaluation,

Scientific Observation: The Database

Theory: Systematic?

Theory: Testable?

Theory: Comprehensive?

Applications

Major Contributions and Summary

Major Concepts

Review

Chapter 12 Social-Cognitive Theory: Bandura and Mischel

Questions to be Addressed in This Chapter

Relating Social-Cognitive Theory to the Previous Theories

A View of the Theorists

Social-Cognitive Theory’s View of the Person

Social-Cognitive Theory’s View of the Science of Personality

Social-Cognitive Theory of Personality: Structure

Competencies and Skills

Beliefs and Expectancies

The Self and Self-Efficacy Beliefs

Self-Efficacy and Performance

Goals

Evaluative Standards

The Nature of Social-Cognitive Personality Structures

Social-Cognitive Theory of Personality: Process

Reciprocal Determinism

Personality as a Cognitive-Affective Processing System (Caps)

Social-Cognitive Theory of Growth and Development

Observational Learning (Modeling)

Acquisition versus Performance

Vicarious Conditioning

Self-Regulation and Motivation

Self-Efficacy, Goals, and Self-Evaluative Reactions

Self-Control and Delay of Gratification

Learning Delay of Gratification Skills

Mischel’s Delay Of Gratification Paradigm

Summary of the Social-Cognitive View of Growth and Development

Major Concepts

Review

Chapter 13 Social-Cognitive Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, and Contemporary Research

Beliefs about the Self And Self-Schemas

Self-Schemas and Reaction-Time Methods

Self-Based Motives and Motivated Information Processing

Learning versus Performance Goals

Causes of Learning versus Performance Goals: Implicit Theories

Standards of Evaluation

Self-Standards, Self-Discrepancies, Emotion, and Motivation

A ’’General Principles” Approach to Personality

Psychopathology And Change: Modeling, Self-Conceptions, And Perceived Self-Efficacy

Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, And Depression

Self-Efficacy and Health,

Therapeutic Change: Modeling and Guided Mastery

Stress and Coping

Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Therapy

Beck’s Cognitive Therapy for Depression

The Case of Jim

Critical Evaluation

Scientific Observation: The Database

Theory: Systematic?

Theory: Testable?

Theory: Comprehensive?

Applications

Major Contributions and Summary

Major Concepts

Review

Chapter 14 Personality in Context: Interpersonal Relations, Culture, and Development across the Course of Life

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter

Interpersonal Relationships

Rejection Sensitivity

Transference in Interpersonal Relationships

Meeting Academic and Social Challenges: Optimistic Strategies and Defensive Pessimism

Personality Consistency in Context

Personality Development in Socioeconomic Context

Personality Functioning Across the Life Span

Psychological Resilience in the Later Years

Emotional Life in Older Adulthood: Socioemotional Selectivity

Persons in Cultures

Two Strategies for Thinking about Personality and Culture

Personality and Self As Socially Constructed Within Culture

Putting Personality in Context into Practice

Assessing Personality in Context: A Case Study

Personality Processes in Context: Fostering Social Change

Summary

Major Concepts

Review

Chapter 15 Assessing Personality Theory and Research

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter

On Structures, Processes, Development, and Therapeutic Change

Personality Structure

Process

Growth and Development

Psychopathology and Change

The Case of Jim

How Did They Do? A Critical Evaluation of Personality Theories and Research, Scientific Observation: The Database

Theory: Systematic?

Theory: Testable?

Theory: Comprehensive?

Applications

A Final Summing Up: Theories as Toolkits

Review

Glossary

References

Name Index

Subject Index

 

  • Coverage of self-determination in Chapter 6 Rogers’s Phenomenological Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, and Contemporary Research has been significantly re-worked and expanded.
  • The discussion of the Five-Factor Model in Chapter 8 Trait Theory: The Five-Factor Model; Applications and Evaluation of Trait Approaches to Personality has been updated.
  • The presentation of Social Cognitive Theory in Chapter 12 Social-Cognitive Theory: Bandura and Mischel and Chapter 13 Social-Cognitive Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, and Contemporary Research has been revised with new material.
  • Throughout the text has been streamlined to aid in students focus and understanding.

 

  • Integrates theory and research to demonstrate to the student how the two impact one another.
  • Integrates case material with theory to bridge the gap between the general and specific. Enables students interested in clinical psychology to see links between personality psych and clinical practice.
  • Provides a basis for comparison of theories allowing students to make their own judgements concerning the merits of each.
  • Presents complex scientific theories in an accessible manner.