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Personality: Theory and Research, 14th Edition

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Personality: Theory and Research, 14th Edition

Daniel Cervone, Lawrence A. Pervin

ISBN: 978-1-119-49201-6 October 2018 496 Pages

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Description

An invaluable resource for over four decades, Personality examines the fundamental theories and concepts of personality psychology while exploring contemporary research, new methodologies, and the latest technological advancements. Through a well-rounded blend of theory, case studies, and the latest research, this text identifies the structures and processes of personality, traces personality development, and highlights the value of therapeutic change.

An effective pedagogical structure enhances student interest while strengthening objectivity and critical-thinking skills. Psychodynamic, social-cognitive, phenomenological, and trait-theoretic perspectives are presented in an unbiased—yet critical—fashion that encourages students to compare theories, evaluate evidence, analyze data, and form their own conclusions. Thorough historical coverage is balanced with discussions of the current state of the field, providing a solid understanding of theory and methods as relevant to practice today. Suitable for introductory coursework, this text also serves as a valuable resource for advanced studies and as a reference for professionals in psychology and related fields.

Dr. Tracy Caldwell is the author of the ancillaries to accompany Personality, 14th Edition.

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Preface v

1 Personality Theory: From Everyday Observations to Systematic Theories 1

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter 2

Defining Personality 3

Why Study Personality? 4

Three Goals for the Personality Theorist 5

Answering Questions about Persons Scientifically: Understanding Structures, Processes, Development, and Therapeutic Change 8

Important Issues in Personality Theory 15

Evaluating Personality Theories 21

The Personality Theories: An Introduction 22

Major Concepts 25

Review 25

2 The Scientific Study of People 27

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter 28

The Data of Personality Psychology 29

Goals of Research: Reliability, Validity, Ethical Behavior 37

Three General Strategies of Research 39

Personality Theory and Personality Research 50

Personality Assessment and the Case of Jim 51

Major Concepts 52

Review 52

3 A Psychodynamic Theory: Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality 53

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter 54

Sigmund Freud (1856–1939): A View of the Theorist 54

Freud’s View of the Person 56

Freud’s View of the Science of Personality 60

Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality 60

Major Concepts 84

Review 84

4 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, and Contemporary Research 85

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter 86

Psychodynamic Personality Assessment: Projective Tests 86

Psychopathology 91

Psychological Change 95

The Case of Jim 100

Related Theoretical Conceptions 102

Contemporary Developments in Personality Theory: Neuropsychoanalysis 116

Critical Evaluation 121

Major Concepts 125

Review 125

5 A Phenomenological Theory: Carl Rogers’s Person-Centered Theory of Personality 127

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter 128

Carl R. Rogers (1902–1987): A View of the Theorist 128

Rogers’s View of the Person 130

Rogers’s View of the Science of Personality 132

The Personality Theory of Carl Rogers 133

Major Concepts 146

Review 146

6 Rogers’s Phenomenological Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, and Contemporary Research 147

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter 148

Clinical Applications 148

The Case of Jim 155

Related Conceptions: Human Potential, Positive Psychology, and Existentialism 156

Developments in Research: The Self and Authenticity 163

A Limitation of Rogerian Theory: What Exactly is the “Integrated Self”? 170

Personality Systems Interaction Theory 171

Illustrative Research 174

Implications for Rogers’s Self Theory of Personality 174

Critical Evaluation 175

Major Concepts 179

Review 179

7 Trait Theories of Personality: Allport, Eysenck, and Cattell 180

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter 181

A View of the Trait Theorists 182

Trait Theory’s View of the Person 182

Trait Theory’s View of the Science of Personality 183

Trait Theories of Personality: Basic Perspectives Shared by Trait Theorists 185

The Trait Theory of Gordon W. Allport (1897–1967) 186

Identifying Primary Trait Dimensions: Factor Analysis 189

The Factoranalytic Trait Theory of Raymond B. Cattell (1905–1998) 191

The Three-factor Theory of Hans J. Eysenck (1916–1997) 195

Major Concepts 204

Review 204

8 Trait Theory: The Five-Factor Model and Contemporary Developments 205

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter 206

On Taxonomies of Personality 206

The Five-Factor Model of Personality: Research Evidence 207

Five-Factor Theory 218

Maybe We Missed One? The Six-Factor Model 220

Cross-cultural Research: Are the Big Five Dimensions Universal? 221

Contemporary Developments in Trait Theory: Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory 224

The Case of Jim—Factor-Analytic Trait-Based Assessment 230

The Person-Situation Controversy 233

Critical Evaluation 236

Major Concepts 240

Review 240

9 Biological Foundations of Personality 241

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter 242

Temperament 243

Evolution, Evolutionary Psychology, and Personality 248

Genes and Personality 255

Mood, Emotion, and the Brain 266

Plasticity: Biology as Both Cause and Effect 270

Neuroscientific Investigations of “Higher-Level” Psychological Functions 271

Summary 272

Major Concepts 272

Review 272

10 Behaviorism and The Learning Approaches To Personality 273

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter 274

Behaviorism’s View of the Person 274

Behaviorism’s View of the Science of Personality 275

Watson, Pavlov, and Classical Conditioning 278

Skinner’s Theory of Operant Conditioning 288

Critical Evaluation 297

Major Concepts 300

Review 300

11 A Cognitive Theory: George a Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory of Personality 301

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter 302

George A. Kelly (1905–1966): A View of the Theorist 303

Kelly’s View of the Science of Personality 304

Kelly’s View of the Person 306

The Personality Theory of George A. Kelly 307

Clinical Applications 320

The Case of Jim 322

Related Points of View and Recent Developments 324

Critical Evaluation 325

Major Concepts 328

Review 329

12 Social-Cognitive Theory: Bandura and Mischel 330

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter 331

Relating Social-Cognitive Theory to the Previous Theories 331

A View of the Theorists 332

Social-Cognitive Theory’s View of the Person 335

Social-Cognitive Theory’s View of the Science of Personality 335

Social-Cognitive Theory of Personality: Structure 335

Social-Cognitive Theory of Personality: Process 344

Social-Cognitive Theory of Growth and Development 349

Major Concepts 360

Review 360

13 Social-Cognitive Theory: Applications, Related Theoretical Conceptions, and Contemporary Developments 362

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter 363

Cognitive Components of Personality: Beliefs, Goals, and Evaluative Standards 363

Contemporary Developments in Personality Theory: The KAPA Model 373

Clinical Applications 379

Stress, Coping, and Cognitive Therapy 384

The Case of Jim 388

Critical Evaluation 390

Major Concepts 392

Review 392

14 Personality In Context: Interpersonal Relations, Culture, and Development Across The Course of Life 394

Questions to be Addressed in this Chapter 395

Interpersonal Relationships 396

Meeting Academic and Social Challenges: Optimistic Strategies and Defensive Pessimism 401

Personality Development in Socioeconomic Context 402

Personality Functioning Across the Life Span 403

Persons in Cultures 406

Putting Personality in Context into Practice 411

Summary 416

Major Concepts 416

Review 416

Glossary 417

References 429

Index 471

  • Coverage has been alternately expanded and streamlined to reflect each topic’s importance in modern research, theory, and practice
  • Contemporary Developments features highlight specific 21st century theories that directly address limitations in previously accepted thinking
  • Discussion of modern research methods details the use of new technology, such as computerized text analysis applied to social media
  • Illustrates the interconnection between theory, research, and clinical practice
  • Highlights the contributions of neuroscience in advancing all aspects of personality theory and research
  • Provides a comparative learning framework that capitalizes on student intuition to encourage critical thinking and self-exploration
  • Presents complex ideas in an accessible, easy to follow style that directly engages students without oversimplifying critical points
  • Incorporates case studies to illustrate general concepts through specific examples
  • Emphasizes major theories over those with little relevance to the modern field