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Philosophy of Science, 2nd Edition, International Student Edition

Philosophy of Science, 2nd Edition, International Student Edition

Martin Curd, J. A. Cover, Christopher Pincock

ISBN: 978-0-393-92080-2

*Norton agency titles

1393 pages

Select type: Paperback

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Description

A flexible and comprehensive introduction to the main currents in philosophy of science.

Both an anthology and an introductory textbook, Philosophy of Science: The Central Issues offers instructors and students a comprehensive anthology of fifty-two primary texts by leading philosophers in the field and provides extensive editorial commentary that places the readings in a wide philosophical context.

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Preface
General Introduction

1 | Science and Pseudoscience

Introduction

Karl Popper, Science: Conjectures and Refutations 
Thomas S. Kuhn, Logic of Discovery or Psychology of Research?
Imre Lakatos, Science and Pseudoscience
Paul R. Thagard, Why Astrology Is a Pseudoscience
Michael Ruse, Creation-Science Is Not Science
Larry Laudan, Commentary: Science at the Bar—Causes for Concern

Commentary

2 | Rationality, Objectivity, and Values in Science

Introduction

Thomas S. Kuhn, The Nature and Necessity of Scientific Revolutions
Thomas S. Kuhn, Objectivity, Value Judgment, and Theory Choice
Ernan McMullin, Rationality and Paradigm Change in Science
Larry Laudan, Kuhn’s Critique of Methodology
Helen E. Longino, Values and Objectivity
Kathleen Okruhlik, Gender and the Biological Sciences

Commentary

3 | The Duhem-Quine Thesis and Underdetermination

Introduction

Pierre Duhem, Physical Theory and Experiment
W. V. Quine, Two Dogmas of Empiricism
Donald Gillies, The Duhem Thesis and the Quine Thesis
Larry Laudan, Demystifying Underdetermination
*Colin Howson and Peter Urbach, The Duhem Problem

Commentary

4 | Induction, Prediction, and Evidence

Introduction

Peter Lipton, Induction
Karl Popper, The Problem of Induction
Wesley C. Salmon, Rational Prediction
Carl G. Hempel, Criteria of Confirmation and Acceptability
Peter Achinstein, Explanation v. Prediction: Which Carries More Weight?
*Nelson Goodman, The New Riddle of Induction

Commentary

5 | Confirmation and Relevance: Bayesian Approaches

Introduction

Wesley C. Salmon, Rationality and Objectivity in Science
*Deborah G. Mayo, A Critique of Salmon’s Bayesian Way
*Alan Chalmers, The Bayesian Approach
Paul Horwich, Therapeutic Bayesianism

Commentary

6 | Models of Explanation

Introduction

Rudolf Carnap, The Value of Laws: Explanation and Prediction
Carl G. Hempel, Two Basic Types of Scientific Explanation
Carl G. Hempel, The Thesis of Structural Identity
Carl G. Hempel, Inductive-Statistical Explanation
Peter Railton, A Deductive-Nomological Model of Probabilistic Explanation
*Philip Kitcher, Explanatory Unification
*James Woodward, The Manipulability Conception of Causal Explanation

Commentary

7 | Laws of Nature

Introduction

A. J. Ayer, What Is a Law of Nature?
Fred I. Dretske, Laws of Nature
D. H. Mellor, Necessities and Universals in Natural Laws
Nancy Cartwright, Do the Laws of Physics State the Facts?

Commentary

8 | Intertheoretic Reduction

Introduction

Ernest Nagel, Issues in the Logic of Reductive Explanations
Paul K. Feyerabend, How to Be a Good Empiricist
*Jerry A. Fodor, Special Sciences
Philip Kitcher, 1953 and All That: A Tale of Two Sciences

Commentary

9 | Empiricism and Scientific Realism

Introduction

Grover Maxwell, The Ontological Status of Theoretical Entities
Bas C. van Fraassen, Arguments Concerning Scientific Realism
Alan Musgrave, Realism versus Constructive Empiricism
Larry Laudan, A Confutation of Convergent Realism
*Juha T. Saatsi, On the Pessimistic Induction and Two Fallacies
Ian Hacking, Experimentation and Scientific Realism
David B. Resnik, Hacking’s Experimental Realism
*Martin Carrier, What Is Right with the Miracle Argument
Arthur Fine, The Natural Ontological Attitude
Alan Musgrave, NOA’s Ark—Fine for Realism

Commentary

_____

Glossary
Bibliography 

Name Index
Subject Index

CONTEMPORARY AND RELEVANT READINGS
The Second Edition offers an exceptionally balanced selection of some of the most important statements in contemporary philosophy of science. Readings added to the Second Edition include Colin Howson and Peter Urbach, “The Duhem Problem”; Nelson Goodman, “The New Riddle of Induction”; Deborah G. Mayo, “A Critique of Salmon’s Bayesian Way”; Alan Chalmers, “The Bayesian Approach”; Philip Kitcher, “Explanatory Unification”; James Woodward, “The Manipulability Conception of Causal Explanation”; Jerry A. Fodor, “Special Sciences (Or: The Disunity of Science as a Working Hypothesis)”; Juha T. Saatsi, “On the Pessimistic Induction and Two Fallacies”; and Martin Carrier, “What Is Right with the Miracle Argument: Establishing a Taxonomy of Natural Kinds.”

COMPREHENSIVE COVERAGE
Fifty-two articles, including nine added to this edition, by Thomas S. Kuhn, Karl Popper, Carl G. Hempel, W. V. Quine, Jerry A. Fodor, Philip S. Kitcher, and other prominent philosophers, survey foundational questions in the field such as What distinguishes science from pseudoscience? Is scientific change a rational process? In what sense is science objective? What are natural laws, and what do they describe? Do scientific theories offer a true account of the world? All readings are offered complete or in substantial, teachable excerpts.

A CLEAR AND ACCESSIBLE INTRODUCTION TO PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
The book provides unmatched editorial apparatus, including brief introductions to the nine thematic sections that highlight the major issues addressed in the readings and thorough commentaries following the readings that discuss the selections in depth, develop salient arguments, explain unfamiliar theories, place the readings in a wider philosophical context, and draw connections to other pieces in the anthology.