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Phonological Development: The First Two Years, 2nd Edition



Phonological Development: The First Two Years, 2nd Edition

Marilyn May Vihman

ISBN: 978-1-118-34283-1 February 2014 Wiley-Blackwell 448 Pages

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Drawing on major research developments in the field, Vihman has updated and extensively revised the 1996 edition of her classic text to provide a thorough and stimulating overview of current studies of child production and perception and early word learning.

  • Offers a full survey of the thinking on how babies develop phonological knowledge
  • Provides a much needed update on the field – one in which this book remains unique, and in which there have also been dramatic developments since the publication of the first edition
  • Surveys what has been learned about phonological development and raises questions for further study
  • The only book that includes balanced treatment of research in perception and production and attempts a synthesis of these fields, which have generally developed in isolation from one another
  • Includes a new chapter providing an overview of communicative and attentional development, as well as perceptual and vocal development, in the first 18 months, with additional focus on both implicit and explicit learning mechanisms
Note on Second Edition xi

Acknowledgments xiii

1 Introduction 1

Biological Foundations of Language Development 3

Phonological Development: Goals and Challenges 10

Methodologies: Data Sources andTheoretical Perspectives 13

Overview 16

2 Precursors to Language: The First 18 Months of Life 18

TheDevelopment of Linguistic Form and Function 20

1 Early Capacities: Birth to 2 Months 23

2 Early Capacities: 2 to 4 Months 26

3 Early Capacities: 4 to 6 Months 28

4 First Advances: 6 to 9 Months 29

5 Bringing the Strands Together: 9 to 12 Months 31

6 Transition to Language Use: 12 to 18 Months 35

Learning Mechanisms 40

Summary: Precursors and the Transition to Language Use 46

3 Development in Perception: Early Capacities, Rapid Change 49

Issues that Motivated the Study of Infant Speech Perception 49

Methods Used to Study Infant Speech Perception 56

Discrimination: Infant Capacities 59

Mechanisms Underlying Infant Perception 60

Developmental Change in Perception 63

‘Perceptual Narrowing’: Models of Developmental Change 67

Cross-Modal Perception 75

Summary:The Infant Listener – From Universal to Particular 78

4 Infant Vocal Production 80

Early Vocal Production 81

The Social Context, I: Precanonical Period 91

The Emergence of Adult-Like Syllables 95

The Social Context, II: Canonical Period 101

Vowel Production in the First Year 103

Influence from the Ambient Language 105

Summary: Biological and Social Foundations 110

5 Perceptual Advances in the First Year: Prosody, Segmentation and Distributional Learning 112

The Role of Prosody and Infant-Directed Speech (IDS) 113

Prosodic Bootstrapping 117

Advances in Knowledge of Accentual Patterns and Phonotactics 121

Experimental Studies of Segmentation 125

Distributional or Statistical Learning 139

Summary: Rhythms and Segmental Patterns 143

6 The Transition to Language Use 145

Beginnings ofWord Comprehension 146

Development of Intentional Communication 150

ReferentialWord Use 161

Phonetic and Phonological Development 163

Rhythm in Child Production 168

Emergence of Phonological Systematicity 175

Summary: Continuity and Change 177

7 Experimental Studies ofWord-Form Learning 179

The Role of Phonology inWord Recognition andWord Learning 179

The Perceptual Basis ofWord Learning 180

Explorations of ‘Phonological Specificity’ 186

Integrating the Findings 200

Neurophysiological Investigation ofWord Learning 202

Summary:Understanding theDevelopment of Representation 209

8 Phonological Development in the Bilingual Child 212

The Study of Child Bilingualism 213

‘Non-selectivity’ in Adult Bilingual Processing 214

Speech Perception and Processing 217

Bilingual Production 231

Separate Systems with Interaction 241

Summary: The Experience of the Bilingual Child 243

9 Theories, I: Formalist and PerceptionModels 245

What is the Source of the Linguistic System? 246

The First Linguistic Models 248

Contemporary Formalist Models 254

Contemporary Formalist Models: Critique and Appreciation 268

Perception Models 270

Perception Models: Critique and Appreciation 275

Summary:Theory and Data in Developmental Models 275

10 Theories, II: Functionalist or Emergentist Models 277

Biological Model 278

Self-Organizing Models 279

Usage-Based Models 285

Whole-Word Phonology 290

Functionalist or Emergentist Models: Critique and Appreciation 307

Summary: Emergent Phonology 309

11 Conclusion 311

Linking Perception and Production 312

Effects of Lexical Learning and Language Use 315

Appendix 1: Data Sources 318

Appendix 2: Protoword Forms and Uses 321

Appendix 3: Template Analyses 323

Word Template Analysis: A Diary Study 323

Word Template Analysis: Research Studies 331

Generality of Template Use 346

References 349

Name Index 407

Subject Index 417