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Photonics and Electronics with Germanium

Photonics and Electronics with Germanium

Kazumi Wada (Editor), Lionel C. Kimerling (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-65022-4

May 2015

336 pages

$152.99

Description

Representing a further step towards enabling the convergence of computing and communication, this handbook and reference treats germanium electronics and optics on an equal footing. Renowned experts paint the big picture, combining both introductory material and the latest results.
The first part of the book introduces readers to the fundamental properties of germanium, such as band offsets, impurities, defects and surface structures, which determine the performance of germanium-based devices in conjunction with conventional silicon technology. The second part covers methods of preparing and processing germanium structures, including chemical and physical vapor deposition, condensation approaches and chemical etching. The third and largest part gives a broad overview of the applications of integrated germanium technology: waveguides, photodetectors, modulators, ring resonators, transistors and, prominently, light-emitting devices.
An invaluable one-stop resource for both researchers and developers.
Preface

DEFECTS IN GERMANIUM
Introduction
Methods for Studying Defects and Impurities
Impurities
Intrinsic Defects
Summary

HYDROGEN IN GE
Introduction
Properties of Hydrogen in Ge
Hydrogen Passivation of Shallow Donors and Acceptors in Ge
Summary

EPITAXY OF Ge LAYERS ON BLANKET AND PATTERNED Si(001) FOR NANOELECTRNICS AND OPTOELECTRONICS
General Introduction
Epitaxial Growth of GeThick Layers on Si(001)
Ge Surface Passivation with Si
SEG of Ge in Cavities at the End of OpticalWaveguides
Fabrication, Structural, and Electrical Properties of Compressively Strained Ge-on-Insulator Substrates
Conclusion and Perspectives

HEAVY DOPING IN Si1-xGex EPITAXIAL GROWTH BY CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION
Introduction
In situ Doping of B, P, and C in Si1-x Gex Epitaxial Growth
Atomic-Layer Doping in Si1-xGex Epitaxial Growth
Conclusion and Future Trends

FEOL INTEGRATION OF SILICON- AND GERMANIUM-BASED PHOTONICS IN BULK-SILICON, HIGH-PERFORMANCE SiGe: C-BiCMOS PROCESSES
Introduction
Local SOI Technology
Passive SiliconWaveguide Technology
Modulator Technology
Photonics Integration in BiCMOS Flow
Germanium Photo Detector - Process Integration Challenges
Example Circuit - 10 Gbit s-1 Modulator with Driver
Outlook

Ge CONDENSATION AND ITS DEVICE APPLICATION
Principle of Ge Condensation and Fabrication Process
GOI Film Characterization
Device Application
Summary

WAVEGUIDE DESIGN, FABRICATION, AND ACTIVE DEVICE INTEGRATION
Introduction
Design of Silicon PhotonicWireWaveguiding System
Fabrication
Propagation Performance ofWaveguides
Integration of Si/Silica and Ge Photonic Devices
Summary

DETECTORS
Introduction
Historical Background
Fiber-Optics Revolution
Avalanche Devices
Si-Photonics
High-Performance Ge Detectors
Process Options and Challenges
Device Architectures
Ge on Si Detectors in Highly Integrated Systems
Reliability
Conclusions

Ge AND GeSi ELECTROABSORPTION MODULATORS
Introduction
EAE in Ge and GeSi:Theoretical and Experimental
Waveguide Coupling
Current Progress in Ge and GeSi EAMs
Conclusions

STRAINED Ge FOR Si-BASED INTEGRATED PHOTONICS
Introduction
Bandgap and Strain: Theory
Bandgap and Strain: Experiment
Strain-Engineered Tunability of Lasers
Conclusions

Ge QUANTUM DOTS-BASED LIGHT EMITTING DEVICES
Introduction
Formation of Ge Dots on Si Substrates andTheir Luminescent Properties
Enhanced Light Emission from Ge QDs Embedded in Optical Cavities
Optically Excited Light Emission from Ge QDs
Electrically Excited Light Emission from Ge ODs
Conclusion

Ge-ON-Si LASERS
Introduction
Modeling and Analyses of Band-Engineered Ge Optical Gain Media
Fabrication of Band-Engineered Ge-on-Si
Band-Engineered Ge-on-Si Light Emitters
Conclusions

Index

“Good illustrations and up-to-date references support this comprehensive yet concise text. Anyone who wishes to contribute to advancing the cause of germanium will find much to stimulate and support them in this well-prepared volume. Go Ge!.”  (Optics & Photonics News, 6 November 2015)