**1 Introduction and Mathematical Concepts 1**

1.1 The Nature of Physics 1

1.2 Units 2

1.3 The Role of Units in Problem Solving 3

1.4 Trigonometry 6

1.5 Scalars and Vectors 8

1.6 Vector Addition and Subtraction 10

1.7 The Components of a Vector 12

1.8 Addition of Vectors by Means of Components 15

Concept Summary 19

Focus on Concepts 19

Problems 21

Additional Problems 24

Concepts and Calculations Problems 25

Team Problems 26

**2 Kinematics in One Dimension 27**

2.1 Displacement 27

2.2 Speed and Velocity 28

2.3 Acceleration 31

2.4 Equations of Kinematics for Constant Acceleration 34

2.5 Applications of the Equations of Kinematics 37

2.6 Freely Falling Bodies 41

2.7 Graphical Analysis of Velocity and Acceleration 45

Concept Summary 47

Focus on Concepts 48

Problems 49

Additional Problems 53

Concepts and Calculations Problems 54

Team Problems 54

**3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions 55**

3.1 Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration 55

3.2 Equations of Kinematics in Two Dimensions 56

3.3 Projectile Motion 60

3.4 Relative Velocity 68

Concept Summary 72

Focus on Concepts 73

Problems 74

Additional Problems 77

Concepts and Calculations Problems 78

Team Problems 79

**4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion 80**

4.1 The Concepts of Force and Mass 80

4.2 Newton’s First Law of Motion 81

4.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 83

4.4 The Vector Nature of Newton’s Second Law of Motion 85

4.5 Newton’s Third Law of Motion 86

4.6 Types of Forces: An Overview 88

4.7 The Gravitational Force 88

4.8 The Normal Force 92

4.9 Static and Kinetic Frictional Forces 95

4.10 The Tension Force 101

4.11 Equilibrium Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion 102

4.12 Nonequilibrium Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion 106

Concept Summary 111

Focus on Concepts 112

Problems 114

Additional Problems 118

Concepts and Calculations Problems 119

Team Problems 120

**5 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion 121**

5.1 Uniform Circular Motion 121

5.2 Centripetal Acceleration 122

5.3 Centripetal Force 125

5.4 Banked Curves 129

5.5 Satellites in Circular Orbits 130

5.6 Apparent Weightlessness and Artificial Gravity 133

5.7 *Vertical Circular Motion 136

Concept Summary 137

Focus on Concepts 138

Problems 139

Additional Problems 141

Concepts and Calculations Problems 142

Team Problems 143

**6 Work and Energy 144**

6.1 Work Done by a Constant Force 144

6.2 The Work–Energy Theorem and Kinetic Energy 147

6.3 Gravitational Potential Energy 153

6.4 Conservative Versus Nonconservative Forces 155

6.5 The Conservation of Mechanical Energy 157

6.6 Nonconservative Forces and the Work–Energy Theorem 161

6.7 Power 162

6.8 Other Forms of Energy and the Conservation of Energy 164

6.9 Work Done by a Variable Force 164

Concept Summary 166

Focus on Concepts 167

Problems 168

Additional Problems 172

Concepts and Calculations Problems 173

Team Problems 174

**7 Impulse and Momentum 175**

7.1 The Impulse–Momentum Theorem 175

7.2 The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum 179

7.3 Collisions in One Dimension 184

7.4 Collisions in Two Dimensions 189

7.5 Center of Mass 189

Concept Summary 192

Focus on Concepts 193

Problems 194

Additional Problems 197

Concepts and Calculations Problems 198

Team Problems 199

**8 Rotational Kinematics 200**

8.1 Rotational Motion and Angular Displacement 200

8.2 Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration 203

8.3 The Equations of Rotational Kinematics 205

8.4 Angular Variables and Tangential Variables 208

8.5 Centripetal Acceleration and Tangential Acceleration 210

8.6 Rolling Motion 213

8.7 *The Vector Nature of Angular Variables 214

Concept Summary 215

Focus on Concepts 216

Problems 216

Additional Problems 220

Concepts and Calculations Problems 221

Team Problems 222

**9 Rotational Dynamics 223**

9.1 The Action of Forces and Torques on Rigid Objects 223

9.2 Rigid Objects in Equilibrium 226

9.3 Center of Gravity 231

9.4 Newton’s Second Law for Rotational Motion About a Fixed Axis 236

9.5 Rotational Work and Energy 241

9.6 Angular Momentum 244

Concept Summary 246

Focus on Concepts 247

Problems 248

Additional Problems 254

Concepts and Calculations Problems 255

Team Problems 256

**10 Simple Harmonic Motion and Elasticity 257**

10.1 The Ideal Spring and Simple Harmonic Motion 257

10.2 Simple Harmonic Motion and the Reference Circle 261

10.3 Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion 267

10.4 The Pendulum 270

10.5 Damped Harmonic Motion 273

10.6 Driven Harmonic Motion and Resonance 274

10.7 Elastic Deformation 275

10.8 Stress, Strain, and Hooke’s Law 279

Concept Summary 280

Focus on Concepts 281

Problems 282

Additional Problems 287

Concepts and Calculations Problems 288

Team Problems 288

**11 Fluids 289**

11.1 Mass Density 289

11.2 Pressure 291

11.3 Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid 293

11.4 Pressure Gauges 297

11.5 Pascal’s Principle 298

11.6 Archimedes’ Principle 300

11.7 Fluids in Motion 305

11.8 The Equation of Continuity 307

11.9 Bernoulli’s Equation 309

11.10 Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation 311

11.11 *Viscous Flow 314

Concept Summary 317

Focus on Concepts 318

Problems 319

Additional Problems 323

Concepts and Calculations Problems 324

Team Problems 325

**12 Temperature and Heat 326**

12.1 Common Temperature Scales 326

12.2 The Kelvin Temperature Scale 328

12.3 Thermometers 329

12.4 Linear Thermal Expansion 330

12.5 Volume Thermal Expansion 337

12.6 Heat and Internal Energy 339

12.7 Heat and Temperature Change: Specific Heat Capacity 340

12.8 Heat and Phase Change: Latent Heat 343

12.9 *Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter 347

12.10 *Humidity 350

Concept Summary 352

Focus on Concepts 352

Problems 353

Additional Problems 358

Concepts and Calculations Problems 358

Team Problems 359

**13 The Transfer of Heat 360**

13.1 Convection 360

13.2 Conduction 363

13.3 Radiation 370

13.4 Applications 373

Concept Summary 375

Focus on Concepts 375

Problems 376

Additional Problems 378

Concepts and Calculations Problems 379

Team Problems 379

**14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory 380**

14.1 Molecular Mass, the Mole, and Avogadro’s Number 380

14.2 The Ideal Gas Law 383

14.3 Kinetic Theory of Gases 388

14.4 *Diffusion 392

Concept Summary 395

Focus on Concepts 396

Problems 397

Additional Problems 399

Concepts and Calculations Problems 400

Team Problems 400

**15 Thermodynamics 401**

15.1 Thermodynamic Systems and Their Surroundings 401

15.2 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 402

15.3 The First Law of Thermodynamics 402

15.4 Thermal Processes 404

15.5 Thermal Processes Using an Ideal Gas 408

15.6 Specific Heat Capacities 411

15.7 The Second Law of Thermodynamics 412

15.8 Heat Engines 413

15.9 Carnot’s Principle and the Carnot Engine 414

15.10 Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps 417

15.11 Entropy 420

15.12 The Third Law of Thermodynamics 425

Concept Summary 425

Focus on Concepts 426

Problems 427

Additional Problems 431

Concepts and Calculations Problems 432

Team Problems 432

**16 Waves and Sound 433**

16.1 The Nature of Waves 433

16.2 Periodic Waves 435

16.3 The Speed of a Wave on a String 436

16.4 *The Mathematical Description of a Wave 439

16.5 The Nature of Sound 439

16.6 The Speed of Sound 442

16.7 Sound Intensity 446

16.8 Decibels 448

16.9 The Doppler Effect 450

16.10 Applications of Sound in Medicine 454

16.11 *The Sensitivity of the Human Ear 455

Concept Summary 456

Focus on Concepts 457

Problems 458

Additional Problems 463

Concepts and Calculations Problems 464

Team Problems 464

**17 The Principle of Linear Superposition and Interference Phenomena 465**

17.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition 465

17.2 Constructive and Destructive Interference of Sound Waves 466

17.3 Diffraction 470

17.4 Beats 473

17.5 Transverse Standing Waves 474

17.6 Longitudinal Standing Waves 478

17.7 *Complex Sound Waves 481

Concept Summary 482

Focus on Concepts 483

Problems 484

Additional Problems 487

Concepts and Calculations Problems 488

Team Problems 488

**18 Electric Forces and Electric Fields 489**

18.1 The Origin of Electricity 489

18.2 Charged Objects and the Electric Force 490

18.3 Conductors and Insulators 493

18.4 Charging by Contact and by Induction 493

18.5 Coulomb’s Law 495

18.6 The Electric Field 500

18.7 Electric Field Lines 505

18.8 The Electric Field Inside a Conductor: Shielding 508

18.9 Gauss’ Law 510

18.10 *Copiers and Computer Printers 513

Concept Summary 516

Focus on Concepts 516

Problems 517

Additional Problems 521

Concepts and Calculations Problems 521

Team Problems 522

**19 Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential 523**

19.1 Potential Energy 523

19.2 The Electric Potential Difference 524

19.3 The Electric Potential Difference Created by Point Charges 530

19.4 Equipotential Surfaces and Their Relation to the Electric Field 534

19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics 537

19.6 *Biomedical Applications of Electric Potential Differences 541

Concept Summary 544

Focus on Concepts 544

Problems 546

Additional Problems 548

Concepts and Calculations Problems 549

Team Problems 550

**20 Electric Circuits 551**

20.1 Electromotive Force and Current 551

20.2 Ohm’s Law 553

20.3 Resistance and Resistivity 554

20.4 Electric Power 557

20.5 Alternating Current 559

20.6 Series Wiring 562

20.7 Parallel Wiring 565

20.8 Circuits Wired Partially in Series and Partially in Parallel 569

20.9 Internal Resistance 570

20.10 Kirchhoff ’s Rules 571

20.11 The Measurement of Current and Voltage 574

20.12 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel 575

20.13 *RC* Circuits 577

20.14 Safety and the Physiological Effects of Current 579

Concept Summary 580

Focus on Concepts 581

Problems 582

Additional Problems 588

Concepts and Calculations Problems 589

Team Problems 589

**21 Magnetic Forces and Magnetic Fields 590**

21.1 Magnetic Fields 590

21.2 The Force That a Magnetic Field Exerts on a Moving Charge 592

21.3 The Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field 595

21.4 The Mass Spectrometer 599

21.5 The Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field 600

21.6 The Torque on a Current-Carrying Coil 602

21.7 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents 605

21.8 Ampère’s Law 612

21.9 Magnetic Materials 613

Concept Summary 616

Focus on Concepts 617

Problems 618

Additional Problems 623

Concepts and Calculations Problems 624

Team Problems 624

**22 Electromagnetic Induction 625**

22.1 Induced Emf and Induced Current 625

22.2 Motional Emf 627

22.3 Magnetic Flux 631

22.4 Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction 634

22.5 Lenz’s Law 637

22.6 *Applications of Electromagnetic Induction to the Reproduction of Sound 640

22.7 The Electric Generator 641

22.8 Mutual Inductance and Self-Inductance 646

22.9 Transformers 649

Concept Summary 652

Focus on Concepts 653

Problems 654

Additional Problems 659

Concepts and Calculations Problems 659

Team Problems 660

**23 Alternating Current Circuits 661**

23.1 Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance 661

23.2 Inductors and Inductive Reactance 664

23.3 Circuits Containing Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance 665

23.4 Resonance in Electric Circuits 670

23.5 Semiconductor Devices 672

Concept Summary 678

Focus on Concepts 679

Problems 680

Additional Problems 681

Concepts and Calculations Problems 682

Team Problems 683

**24 Electromagnetic Waves 684**

24.1 The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves 684

24.2 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 688

24.3 The Speed of Light 690

24.4 The Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves 692

24.5 The Doppler Effect and Electromagnetic Waves 695

24.6 Polarization 697

Concept Summary 704

Focus on Concepts 704

Problems 705

Additional Problems 708

Concepts and Calculations Problems 709

Team Problems 710

**25 The Reflection of Light: Mirrors 711**

25.1 Wave Fronts and Rays 711

25.2 The Reflection of Light 712

25.3 The Formation of Images by a Plane Mirror 713

25.4 Spherical Mirrors 716

25.5 The Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors 718

25.6 The Mirror Equation and the Magnification Equation 722

Concept Summary 728

Focus on Concepts 728

Problems 729

Additional Problems 731

Concepts and Calculations Problems 731

Team Problems 732

**26 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments 733**

26.1 The Index of Refraction 733

26.2 Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light 734

26.3 Total Internal Reflection 739

26.4 Polarization and the Reflection and Refraction of Light 745

26.5 The Dispersion of Light: Prisms and Rainbows 746

26.6 Lenses 748

26.7 The Formation of Images by Lenses 749

26.8 The Thin-Lens Equation and the Magnification Equation 752

26.9 Lenses in Combination 755

26.10 The Human Eye 756

26.11 Angular Magnification and the Magnifying Glass 761

26.12 The Compound Microscope 763

26.13 The Telescope 764

26.14 Lens Aberrations 765

Concept Summary 767

Focus on Concepts 768

Problems 769

Additional Problems 775

Concepts and Calculations Problems 775

Team Problems 776

**27 Interference and the Wave Nature of Light 777**

27.1 The Principle of Linear Superposition 777

27.2 Young’s Double-Slit Experiment 779

27.3 Thin-Film Interference 782

27.4 The Michelson Interferometer 786

27.5 Diff raction 787

27.6 Resolving Power 791

27.7 The Diff raction Grating 796

27.8 *Compact Discs, Digital Video Discs, and the Use of Interference 798

27.9 X-Ray Diff raction 799

Concept Summary 801

Focus on Concepts 802

Problems 803

Additional Problems 805

Concepts and Calculations Problems 806

Team Problems 807

**28 Special Relativity 808**

28.1 Events and Inertial Reference Frames 808

28.2 The Postulates of Special Relativity 809

28.3 The Relativity of Time: Time Dilation 811

28.4 The Relativity of Length: Length Contraction 815

28.5 Relativistic Momentum 817

28.6 The Equivalence of Mass and Energy 819

28.7 The Relativistic Addition of Velocities 824

Concept Summary 827

Focus on Concepts 827

Problems 828

Additional Problems 830

Concepts and Calculations Problems 831

Team Problems 831

**29 Particles and Waves 832**

29.1 The Wave–Particle Duality 832

29.2 Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s Constant 833

29.3 Photons and the Photoelectric Effect 834

29.4 The Momentum of a Photon and the Compton Effect 840

29.5 The De Broglie Wavelength and the Wave Nature of Matter 843

29.6 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 845

Concept Summary 849

Focus on Concepts 849

Problems 850

Additional Problems 852

Concepts and Calculations Problems 852

Team Problems 852

**30 The Nature of the Atom 853**

30.1 Rutherford Scattering and the Nuclear Atom 853

30.2 Line Spectra 855

30.3 The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom 857

30.4 De Broglie’s Explanation of Bohr’s Assumption About

Angular Momentum 861

30.5 The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the Hydrogen Atom 862

30.6 The Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table of the Elements 866

30.7 X-Rays 868

30.8 The Laser 872

30.9 *Medical Applications of the Laser 874

30.10 *Holography 876

Concept Summary 878

Focus on Concepts 879

Problems 880

Additional Problems 883

Concepts and Calculations Problems 883

Team Problems 883

**31 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity 885**

31.1 Nuclear Structure 885

31.2 The Strong Nuclear Force and the Stability of the Nucleus 887

31.3 The Mass Defect of the Nucleus and Nuclear Binding Energy 888

31.4 Radioactivity 890

31.5 The Neutrino 896

31.6 Radioactive Decay and Activity 897

31.7 Radioactive Dating 900

31.8 Radioactive Decay Series 903

31.9 Radiation Detectors 904

Concept Summary 906

Focus on Concepts 907

Problems 908

Additional Problems 910

Concepts and Calculations Problems 910

Team Problems 910

**32 Ionizing Radiation, Nuclear Energy, and Elementary Particles 911**

32.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation 911

32.2 Induced Nuclear Reactions 915

32.3 Nuclear Fission 916

32.4 Nuclear Reactors 919

32.5 Nuclear Fusion 920

32.6 Elementary Particles 922

32.7 Cosmology 928

Concept Summary 931

Focus on Concepts 932

Problems 932

Additional Problems 934

Concepts and Calculations Problems 935

Team Problems 935

**Appendixes A-1**

Appendix A Powers of Ten and Scientific Notation A-1

Appendix B Significant Figures A-1

Appendix C Algebra A-2

Appendix D Exponents and Logarithms A-3

Appendix E Geometry and Trigonometry A-4

Appendix F Selected Isotopes A-5

Answers To Check Your Understanding A-10

Answers To Odd-Numbered Problems A-18

Index I-1

Note: Chapter sections marked with an asterisk (*) can be omitted with little impact to the overall development of the material.