# Physics, 9th Edition

# Physics, 9th Edition

ISBN: ES8-0-470-87952-8

## Description

Cutnell and Johnson has been the #1 text in the algebra-based physics market for almost 20 years. PHYSICS 9e continues that tradition by providing superior support students need to facilitate a deeper level of conceptual understanding, improve their reasoning skills and see the relevance of physics to their lives and future careers.Research studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between time on task and student learning gains. PHYSICS 9e with WileyPLUS offers instructors innovative new tools for engaging students. Through the use of a proven pedagogy that includes integrated reading activities, instructors are able to much more effectively monitor student reading and progress, resulting in a higher level of student engagement with the course content.

Success in physics is also based on practice. Working high quality problem sets is one of the best ways for students to learn physics. However, to get the greatest benefit from working problems students need immediate feedback and expert coaching. PHYSICS 9e with WileyPLUS offers an extensive and tested set of assessment questions and sophisticated wrong answer feedback.

## Related Resources

### Student

**1 Introduction and Mathematical Concepts** **1**

**1.1** The Nature of Physics **1**

**1.2** Units **1**

**1.3** The Role of Units in Problem Solving **3**

**1.4** Trigonometry **6**

**1.5** Scalars and Vectors **8**

**1.6** Vector Addition and Subtraction **10**

**1.7** The Components of a Vector **12**

**1.8** Addition of Vectors by Means of Components **15**

**1.9** Concepts & Calculations **18**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **20**

**2 Kinematics in one Dimension** **27**

**2.1** Displacement **27**

**2.2** Speed and Velocity **28**

**2.3** Acceleration **30**

**2.4** Equations of Kinematics for Constant Acceleration **34**

**2.5** Applications of the Equations of Kinematics **38**

**2.6** Freely Falling Bodies **43**

**2.7** Graphical Analysis of Velocity and Acceleration **47**

**2.8** Concepts & Calculations **49**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **51**

**3 Kinematics in Two Dimensions** **57**

**3.1** Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration **57**

**3.2** Equations of Kinematics in Two Dimensions **58**

**3.3** Projectile Motion **62**

**3.4** Relative Velocity **72**

**3.5** Concepts & Calculations **76**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **78**

**4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion** **85**

**4.1** The Concepts of Force and Mass **85**

**4.2** Newton’s First Law of Motion **86**

**4.3** Newton’s Second Law of Motion **87**

**4.4** The Vector Nature of Newton’s Second Law of Motion **90**

**4.5** Newton’s Third Law of Motion **91**

**4.6** Types of Forces: An Overview **92**

**4.7** The Gravitational Force **93**

**4.8** The Normal Force **97**

**4.9** Static and Kinetic Frictional Forces **100**

**4.10** The Tension Force **106**

**4.11** Equilibrium Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion **107**

**4.12** Nonequilibrium Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion **111**

**4.13** Concepts & Calculations **118**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **120**

**5 Dynamics of Uniform Circular Motion** **130**

**5.1** Uniform Circular Motion **130**

**5.2** Centripetal Acceleration **131**

**5.3** Centripetal Force **134**

**5.4** Banked Curves **138**

**5.5** Satellites in Circular Orbits **139**

**5.6** Apparent Weightlessness and Artificial Gravity **142**

**5.7** Vertical Circular Motion **146**

**5.8** Concepts & Calculations **147**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **149**

**6 Work and Energy** **155**

**6.1** Work Done by a Constant Force **155**

**6.2** The Work–Energy Theorem

and Kinetic Energy **158**

**6.3** Gravitational Potential Energy **165**

**6.4** Conservative Versus Nonconservative Forces **167**

**6.5** The Conservation of Mechanical Energy **169**

**6.6** Nonconservative Forces and the Work–Energy Theorem **172**

**6.7** Power **174**

**6.8** Other Forms of Energy and

the Conservation of Energy **176** **6.9** Work Done by a Variable Force **177**

**6.10** Concepts & Calculations **178**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **181**

**7 Impulse and Momentum** **189**

**7.1** The Impulse–Momentum Theorem **189**

**7.2** The Principle of Conservation of Linear Momentum **193**

**7.3** Collisions in One Dimension **198**

**7.4** Collisions in Two Dimensions **203**

**7.5** Center of Mass **205**

**7.6** Concepts & Calculations **207**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **209**

**8 Rotational Kinematics** **216**

**8.1** Rotational Motion and Angular Displacement **216**

**8.2** Angular Velocity and Angular Acceleration **219**

**8.3** The Equations of Rotational Kinematics **221**

**8.4** Angular Variables and Tangential Variables **223**

**8.5** Centripetal Acceleration and Tangential Acceleration **225**

**8.6** Rolling Motion **228**

**8.7** The Vector Nature of Angular Variables **230**

**8.8** Concepts & Calculations **230**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **233**

**9 Rotational Dynamics** **240**

**9.1** The Action of Forces and Torques on Rigid Objects **240**

**9.2** Rigid Objects in Equilibrium **242**

**9.3** Center of Gravity **247**

**9.4** Newton’s Second Law for Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis **252**

**9.5** Rotational Work and Energy **260**

**9.6** Angular Momentum **263**

**9.7** Concepts & Calculations **265**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **267**

**10 Simple Harmonic Motion and Elasticity** **276**

**10.1** The Ideal Spring and Simple Harmonic Motion **276**

**10.2** Simple Harmonic Motion and

the Reference Circle **280**

**10.3** Energy and Simple Harmonic Motion **285**

**10.4** The Pendulum **288**

**10.5** Damped Harmonic Motion **291**

**10.6** Driven Harmonic Motion and Resonance **292**

**10.7** Elastic Deformation **293**

**10.8** Stress, Strain, and Hooke’s Law **298**

**10.9** Concepts & Calculations **299**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **301**

**11 Fluids** **310**

**11.1** Mass Density **310**

**11.2** Pressure **311**

**11.3** Pressure and Depth in a Static Fluid **313**

**11.4** Pressure Gauges **316**

**11.5** Pascal’s Principle **317**

**11.6** Archimedes’ Principle **320**

**11.7** Fluids in Motion **324**

**11.8** The Equation of Continuity **326**

**11.9** Bernoulli’s Equation **328**

**11.10** Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation **330**

**11.11** Viscous Flow **335**

**11.12** Concepts & Calculations **337**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **340**

**12 Temperature and Heat** **348**

**12.1** Common Temperature Scales **348**

**12.2** The Kelvin Temperature Scale **349**

**12.3** Thermometers **350**

**12.4** Linear Thermal Expansion **352**

**12.5** Volume Thermal Expansion **358**

**12.6** Heat and Internal Energy **360**

**12.7** Heat and Temperature Change: Specific Heat Capacity **360**

**12.8** Heat and Phase Change: Latent Heat **365**

**12.9** Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter **369**

**12.10** Humidity **372**

**12.11** Concepts & Calculations **374**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **376**

**13 The Transfer of Heat** **384**

**13.1** Convection **384**

**13.2** Conduction **387**

**13.3** Radiation **393**

**13.4** Applications **398**

**13.5** Concepts & Calculations **399**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **401**

**14 The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory** **406**

**14.1** Molecular Mass, the Mole, and Avogadro’s Number **406**

**14.2** The Ideal Gas Law **409**

**14.3** Kinetic Theory of Gases **414**

**14.4** Diffusion **419**

**14.5** Concepts & Calculations **422**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **425**

**15 Thermodynamics** **431**

**15.1** Thermodynamic Systems and Their Surroundings **431**

**15.2** The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics **431**

**15.3** The First Law of Thermodynamics **432**

**15.4** Thermal Processes **434**

**15.5** Thermal Processes Using an Ideal Gas **438**

**15.6** Specific Heat Capacities **441**

**15.7** The Second Law of Thermodynamics **442**

**15.8** Heat Engines **443**

**15.9** Carnot’s Principle and the Carnot Engine **444**

**15.10** Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps **447**

**15.11** Entropy **451**

**15.12** The Third Law of Thermodynamics **455**

**15.13** Concepts & Calculations **455**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **458**

**16 Waves and Sound** **467**

**16.1** The Nature of Waves **467**

**16.2** Periodic Waves **469**

**16.3** The Speed of a Wave on a String **470**

**16.4** The Mathematical Description of a Wave **473**

**16.5** The Nature of Sound **473**

**16.6** The Speed of Sound **476**

**16.7** Sound Intensity **480**

**16.8** Decibels **482**

**16.9** The Doppler Effect **484**

**16.10** Applications of Sound in Medicine **490**

**16.11** The Sensitivity of the Human Ear **491**

**16.12** Concepts & Calculations **492**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **494**

**17 The Principle of Linear Superposition and Interference Phenomena** **503**

**17.1** The Principle of Linear Superposition **503**

**17.2** Constructive and Destructive Interference of Sound Waves **504**

**17.3** Diffraction **508**

**17.4** Beats **510**

**17.5** Transverse Standing Waves **512**

**17.6** Longitudinal Standing Waves **516**

**17.7** Complex Sound Waves **520**

**17.8** Concepts & Calculations **520**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **522**

**18 Electric Forces and Electric Fields** **529**

**18.1** The Origin of Electricity **529**

**18.2** Charged Objects and the Electric Force **530**

**18.3** Conductors and Insulators **532**

**18.4** Charging by Contact and by Induction **533**

**18.5** Coulomb’s Law **534**

**18.6** The Electric Field **539**

**18.7** Electric Field Lines **545**

**18.8** The Electric Field Inside a Conductor: Shielding **548**

**18.9** Gauss’ Law **550**

**18.10** Copiers and Computer Printers **554**

**18.11** Concepts & Calculations **555**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **558**

**19 Electric Potential Energy and the Electric Potential** **565**

**19.1** Potential Energy **565**

**19.2** The Electric Potential Difference **566**

**19.3** The Electric Potential Difference Created by Point Charges **572**

**19.4** Equipotential Surfaces and Their Relation to the Electric Field **576**

**19.5** Capacitors and Dielectrics **579**

**19.6** Biomedical Applications

of Electric Potential Differences **584**

**19.7** Concepts & Calculations **587**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **589**

**20 Electric Circuits** **595**

**20.1** Electromotive Force and Current **595**

**20.2** Ohm’s Law **597**

**20.3** Resistance and Resistivity **598**

**20.4** Electric Power **601**

**20.5** Alternating Current **603**

**20.6** Series Wiring **606**

**20.7** Parallel Wiring **609**

**20.8** Circuits Wired Partially in Series and Partially in Parallel **613**

**20.9** Internal Resistance **614**

**20.10** Kirchhoff’s Rules **615**

**20.11** The Measurement of Current and Voltage **618**

**20.12** Capacitors in Series and in Parallel **620**

**20.13** *RC* Circuits **622**

**20.14** Safety and the Physiological Effects of Current **623**

**20.15** Concepts & Calculations **624**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **626**

**21 Magnetic Forces and Magnetic Fields** **637**

**21.1** Magnetic Fields **637**

**21.2** The Force that a Magnetic Field Exerts

on a Moving Charge **639**

**21.3** The Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field **642**

**21.4** The Mass Spectrometer **646**

**21.5** The Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field **647**

**21.6** The Torque on a Current-Carrying Coil **649**

**21.7** Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents **651**

**21.8** Ampère’s Law **660**

**21.9** Magnetic Materials **661**

**21.10** Concepts & Calculations **664**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **666**

**22 Electromagnetic Induction** **674**

**22.1** Induced Emf and Induced Current **674**

**22.2** Motional Emf **676**

**22.3** Magnetic Flux **681**

**22.4** Faraday’s Law of Electromagnetic Induction **683**

**22.5** Lenz’s Law **686**

**22.6** Applications of Electromagnetic Induction to the Reproduction of Sound **689**

**22.7** The Electric Generator **690**

**22.8** Mutual Inductance and Self-Inductance **695**

**22.9** Transformers **700**

**22.10** Concepts & Calculations **702**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **705**

**23 Alternating Current Circuits** **713**

**23.1** Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance **713**

**23.2** Inductors and Inductive Reactance **715**

**23.3** Circuits Containing Resistance, Capacitance, and Inductance **717**

**23.4** Resonance in Electric Circuits **722**

**23.5** Semiconductor Devices **726**

**23.6** Concepts & Calculations **731**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **734**

**24 Electromagnetic Waves** **739**

**24.1** The Nature of Electromagnetic Waves **739**

**24.2** The Electromagnetic Spectrum **743**

**24.3** The Speed of Light **745**

**24.4** The Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves **747**

**24.5** The Doppler Effect and Electromagnetic Waves **751**

**24.6** Polarization **754**

**24.7** Concepts & Calculations **759**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **761**

**25 The Reflection of Light: Mirrors** **768**

**25.1** Wave Fronts and Rays **768**

**25.2** The Reflection of Light **769**

**25.3** The Formation of Images by a Plane Mirror **770**

**25.4** Spherical Mirrors **772**

**25.5** The Formation of Images by Spherical Mirrors **775**

**25.6** The Mirror Equation and

the Magnification Equation **779**

**25.7** Concepts & Calculations **784**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **785**

**26 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments** **790**

**26.1** The Index of Refraction **790**

**26.2** Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light **791**

**26.3** Total Internal Reflection **796**

**26.4** Polarization and the Reflection and Refraction of Light **802**

**26.5** The Dispersion of Light: Prisms and Rainbows **802**

**26.6** Lenses **804**

**26.7** The Formation of Images by Lenses **805**

**26.8** The Thin-Lens Equation and

the Magnification Equation **808**

**26.9** Lenses in Combination **811**

**26.10** The Human Eye **813**

**26.11** Angular Magnification and the Magnifying Glass **817**

**26.12** The Compound Microscope **819**

**26.13** The Telescope **820**

**26.14** Lens Aberrations **822**

**26.15** Concepts & Calculations **823**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **825**

**27 Interference and the Wave Nature of Light** **836**

**27.1** The Principle of Linear Superposition **836**

**27.2** Young’s Double-Slit Experiment **838**

**27.3** Thin-Film Interference **841**

**27.4** The Michelson Interferometer **845**

**27.5** Diffraction **846**

**27.6** Resolving Power **850**

**27.7** The Diffraction Grating **855**

**27.8** Compact Discs, Digital Video Discs, and the Use of Interference **857**

**27.9** X-Ray Diffraction **858**

**27.10** Concepts & Calculations **859**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **862**

**28 Special Relativity** **869**

**28.1** Events and Inertial Reference Frames **869**

**28.2** The Postulates of Special Relativity **870**

**28.3** The Relativity of Time: Time Dilation **872**

**28.4** The Relativity of Length: Length Contraction **876**

**28.5** Relativistic Momentum **878**

**28.6** The Equivalence of Mass and Energy **880**

**28.7** The Relativistic Addition of Velocities **885**

**28.8** Concepts & Calculations **888**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **890**

**29 Particles and Waves** **895**

**29.1** The Wave–Particle Duality **895**

**29.2** Blackbody Radiation and Planck’s Constant **896**

**29.3** Photons and the Photoelectric Effect **897**

**29.4** The Momentum of a Photon and the Compton Effect **903**

**29.5** The De Broglie Wavelength and the Wave Nature of Matter **906**

**29.6** The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle **908**

**29.7** Concepts & Calculations **911**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **913**

**30 The Nature of the Atom** **918**

**30.1** Rutherford Scattering and the Nuclear Atom **918**

**30.2** Line Spectra **919**

**30.3** The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom **921**

**30.4** De Broglie’s Explanation of Bohr’s Assumption about Angular Momentum **926**

**30.5** The Quantum Mechanical Picture of the Hydrogen Atom **926**

**30.6** The Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Table of the Elements **930**

**30.7** X-Rays **933**

**30.8** The Laser **937**

**30.9** Medical Applications of the Laser **939**

**30.10** Holography **941**

**30.11** Concepts & Calculations **943**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **946**

**31 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity** **952**

**31.1** Nuclear Structure **952**

**31.2** The Strong Nuclear Force and the Stability of the Nucleus **954**

**31.3** The Mass Defect of the Nucleus and Nuclear Binding Energy **955**

**31.4** Radioactivity **958**

**31.5** The Neutrino **965**

**31.6** Radioactive Decay and Activity **966**

**31.7** Radioactive Dating **969**

**31.8** Radioactive Decay Series **973**

**31.9** Radiation Detectors **973**

**31.10** Concepts & Calculations **975**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **976**

**32 Ionizing Radiation, Nuclear Energy, and Elementary Particles** **982**

**32.1** Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation **982**

**32.2** Induced Nuclear Reactions **986**

**32.3** Nuclear Fission **988**

**32.4** Nuclear Reactors **990**

**32.5** Nuclear Fusion **991**

**32.6** Elementary Particles **994**

**32.7** Cosmology **999**

**32.8** Concepts & Calculations **1001**

**CONCEPT SUMMARY** **1004**

**Appendixes** **A-1**

**Appendix A** Powers of Ten and Scientific Notation **A-1**

**Appendix B** Significant Figures **A-1**

**Appendix C** Algebra **A-2**

**Appendix D** Exponents and Logarithms **A-3**

**Appendix E** Geometry and Trigonometry **A-4**

**Appendix F** Selected Isotopes **A-5**

**Answers to Check Your Understanding** **A-9**

**Answers to Odd-Numbered Problems** **A-16**

**Index** **A-27**

• Significantly expanded multi-media assets in WileyPLUS including videos as well as a number of new animations that complement key figures in the new edition. These new features provide a more engaging and informative format to help students get a better grasp of key concepts.

• Math Skills addresses the issue of varying degrees of student mathematical preparedness. This new feature appears as sidebars throughout the text designed to provide additional help with mathematics for students who need it, yet be unobtrusive for students who don't.

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• Features that help students improve their ability to reason in an organized and mathematically correct manner: Explicit reasoning steps in all examples, Reasoning Strategies for solving certain classes of problems, Analyzing Multiple-Concept Problems, homework problems with associated Guided Online (GO) Tutorials, Interactive LearningWare (an online feature), Interactive Solutions (an online features)

• Examples that show students the relevance of physics to their lives: a wide range of applications from everyday physics to modern technology to biomedical applications. There is extensive support for premed and biomedical students including biomedical applications in the text and end of chapter problems marked with a caduceus, practice MCAT exams, and a supplemental book of biomedical applications.

• High quality problem sets with immediate feedback and varying levels of assistance in the form of hints, suggestions, links to the text, guided online tutorials, video tutorials, animations and other multi-media help that are controlled by instructors.