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Physics of Precipitation: Proceedings of the Cloud Physics Conference, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, June 3 - 5, 1959, Volume 5

Physics of Precipitation: Proceedings of the Cloud Physics Conference, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, June 3 - 5, 1959, Volume 5

Helmut Weickmann (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66893-1

Mar 2013

435 pages

Select type: O-Book


Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 5.

The Second Woods Hole Conference on Cloud Physics, June 3-5, 1959, was devoted to the subject Physics of Precipitation. This volume contains the papers which were presented during the sessions as well as the edited discussion remarks.

Two antagonistic requirements exist which make a planning of a conference very difficult: (1) one has to be able to discuss the details of the subject matter and (2) one would like to understand the matter in a larger frame and in its general significance. In modern science and perhaps especially in cloud physics the details of the subject branch out widely into other fields in which the scale and movements of atoms and molecules form the principal size parameters, whereas the larger frame of cloud physics, which is mainly connected to meteorology, of necessity ends in patterns determined by the scale and movements of the world?]wide atmospheric circulation. In the past the large?]scale and macrophysical aspects of cloud physics had often been neglected on account of the emphasis which was put on microphysical processes of clouds, and in clouds and cloud particles. In the planning of this Conference, an effort was therefore made to do justice to macrophysics and to reconcile this range of 1016 orders of magnitude by illuminating the subject matter from three different vantage points: (1) from the scale of synoptic meteorology, (2) from the scale of clouds and cloud systems, and (3) from the scale of microphysics. In agreement with this planning three main sessions evolved: Morphology of Precipitation Clouds and Cloud Systems, Morphology of Precipitation and Precipitation Particles, and Fundamental Precipitation Processes.

Frontispiece vi

Preface  vii


Welcoming Address on behalf of the American Geophysical Union
Helmut Weickmann  1

Welcoming Address on behalf of the National Science  Foundation
Earl G. Droessler  3

Welcoming Address  on behalf of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Paul M. Fye  4

Address of the Honorary Chairman of the Conference, Problems and Methods of Rainfall
Tor Bergeron 5


Joanne Malkus 31

Synoptic and Planetary Scale Phenomena Leading to the Formation and Recurrence of Precipitation
Jerome Namias 32

Cloud Distributions over the Tropical Oceans in Relation to Large-Scale Flow Patterns
Joanne S. Malkus and Claude Ronne 45

Structure of Convective Storms
Tetsuya Fujita 61

Energetics and the Creation of a Self-Sustaining Local Storm.
C. E. Anderson 67

On the Dynamical Prediction of Large-Scale Condensation by Numerical Methods
Joseph Smagorinsky 71


Orographic-Convective Precipitatioans Revealed by Radar
Bernice Ackerman 79

Microstructure of Storms as Described by Quantitative Radar Data
Pauline M. Austin 86

Plume Formation in Thunderstorms
Waiter Hirschreid 94

The Structure of Minute Precipitation
Johannes Grunow 104

The Productiveness of Fog Precipitation in Relation to the Cloud Droplet Spectrum
Johannes Grunow 110

Horizontal Distribution of Snow Crystals during the Snowfall
Ukichiro Nakaya and Keiji I-Iiguchi 118

Snow Crystal Analysis as a Method of Indirect Aerology..
Johannes Grunow 130

Structure of Snowfall Revealed by Geographic Distribution of Snow Crystals
Choje Magono  142

Operation a nd R esults o f ""Project P luvius""
Tor Bergeron  152


Efficiency of Natural Rain
Raymond Wexler 158

The Aerosol Spectrometer and Its Application to Nuclear Condensation Studies
A. Goetz and O. Preining 164

Differences in Coalescence Tendencies in Computed Condensation Cloud Droplet Spectra
W. A. Mordy 184

Computations of the Growth of Cloud Drops by Condensation Using an Electronic Digital Computer
M. Neiburger and C. W. Chien 191

The Reltation between Cloud Droplet Spectra and the Spectrum of Cloud Nuclei
P. Squiresa nd S. Twomey 211

A Statistical Study of Cloud Droplet Growth by Condensation
Claes Rooth 220

The Nucleation and Growth of Ice Crystals
B. J. Mason 226

The Influence of Climate and Weather Elements on the Activity of Natural Freezing Nuclei
Hans-Walter Georgii 233

Recent Observations of Freezing Nuclei Variations at Ground Level
Dwight B. Kline 240

Studies on the Effect of Chemisorbed Impurities on Heterogeneous Nucleation
Seymour J. Birstein 247

Some Observations of Chloride-Sulfate Relationshipsin the Atmosphere and in Precipitation
James P . Lodge 252

Preliminary Results on the Aggregation of Ice Crystals
R. E. Hallgren and C. L. Hosler 257

Growth b y Accretion in the Ice Phase
R. H. Douglas 264

Frequency Distributions of Precipitation
Oskar Essenwanger 271

Some Aspects of the Optics of the Rainbow and the Physics of Rain
Friedrich E. Volz 280

A possible Effect of Lightning Discharge on Precipitation Formation Process
Bernard Vonnegut and Charles B. Moore 287

Estimates o f Raindrop Collection Efficiencies in Electrified Clouds
C. B. Moore and B. Vonnegut 291


The Mechanism o f Hail Formation
Raymund Singer 305

Design and Operation of the Swiss Hail Tunnel
Roland List 310

Hailstorm Structure Viewed from 32,000 Feet
Robert M. Cunningham 3 25

Severe Hailstorms Are Associated with Very Strong Winds between 6,000 and 12,000 Meters
H. Dessens 333

Morphology of Thunderstorms and Hailstorms as Affected by Vertical Wind Shear
Chester W. Newton 339

Analysis of Hailstorms in the Denver Network, 1949-1958
W. Boynton Beckwith 348

Some Behavior Patterns of New England Hailstorms
Ralph J. Donaldson Jr. , Albert C. Chmela, and Charles Reeve Shackford 354

Hail Studies in Illinois Relating to Cloud Physics
G. E. Stout, R. H. Blackruer, and K. E. Wilk 369


Future Research in Weather Modification
Howard T. Orville 384

The Swiss Randomized Hail Suppression Project in the Tessin
Rayround Sainger 388

A Project for a Formation of Cumulonimbus by Artificial Convection
Henri Dessens 396

Special Comment on African Meteorology
Tor Bergeron 399

Physics of Precipitation in Winter Storms at Santa Barbara, California
Clement J. Todd 402

Artificial Nucleation of Orographic Cumulus Clouds
Louis J. Battan and A. Richard Kassander, Jr. 409

Cloud Seeding in the American T ropics
Wailace E. Howell 412

Artificial Precipitation Potential during Dry Periods in Illinois
Richard G. Semonin 424