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Phytonutritional Improvement of Crops

Phytonutritional Improvement of Crops

Noureddine Benkeblia (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-07998-9

Jul 2017

544 pages

$148.99

Description

An in-depth treatment of cutting-edge work being done internationally to develop new techniques in crop nutritional quality improvement

Phytonutritional Improvement of Crops explores recent advances in biotechnological methods for the nutritional enrichment of food crops. Featuring contributions from an international group of experts in the field, it provides cutting-edge information on techniques of immense importance to academic, professional and commercial operations.

World population is now estimated to be 7.5 billion people, with an annual growth rate of nearly 1.5%. Clearly, the need to enhance not only the quantity of food produced but its quality has never been greater, especially among less developed nations. Genetic manipulation offers the best prospect for achieving that goal. As many fruit crops provide proven health benefits, research efforts need to be focused on improving the nutritional qualities of fruits and vegetables through increased synthesis of lycopene and beta carotene, anthocyanins and some phenolics known to be strong antioxidants. Despite tremendous growth in the area occurring over the past several decades, the work has only just begun. This book represents an effort to address the urgent need to promote those efforts and to mobilise the tools of biotechnical and genetic engineering of the major food crops. Topics covered include:

  • New applications of RNA-interference and virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) for nutritional genomics in crop plants
  • Biotechnological techniques for enhancing carotenoid in crops and their implications for both human health and sustainable development
  • Progress being made in the enrichment and metabolic profiling of diverse carotenoids in a range of fruit crops, including tomatoes, sweet potatoes and tropical fruits
  • Biotechnologies for boosting the phytonutritional values of key crops, including grapes and sweet potatoes
  • Recent progress in the development of transgenic rice engineered to massively accumulate flavonoids in-seed

Phytonutritional Improvement of Crops is an important text/reference that belongs in all universities and research establishments where agriculture, horticulture, biological sciences, and food science and technology are studied, taught and applied. 

List of Contributors xv

Foreword xxi

1 Important Plant-Based Phytonutrients 1
Avik Basu, Saikat Kumar Basu, Ratnabali Sengupta, Muhammad Asif, Xianping Li, Yanshan Li, Arvind Hirani, Peiman Zandi, Muhammad Sajad, Francisco Solorio-Sánchez, Ambrose Obongo Mbuya, William Cetzal-Ix, Sonam Tashi, Tshitila Jongthap,Danapati Dhungyel and Mukhtar Ahmad

List of Abbreviations 1

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods in Human Health 3

1.3 Plants with Potential for Use as Nutraceutical Source and Functional Food Component 49

1.4 Nutraceutical Values of Fenugreek 49

1.4.1 Fenugreek Possesses the Following Medicinal Properties 50

1.5 Coloured Potatoes as Functional Food 51

1.6 Red Wine as Functional Food 54

1.7 Tea as Functional Food 54

1.8 Cereals as Nutraceuticals 55

1.9 Nutraceutical Properties of Wheat Bran and Germ 58

1.9.1 Wheat Bran 58

1.9.2 Wheat Germ 59

1.10 Barley and Oat as Nutraceuticals 59

1.11 Value-Added Products 59

1.12 Conclusion 61

Acknowledgements 61

References 61

2 Biotechnological Interventions for Improvement of Plant Nutritional Value: From Mechanisms to Applications 83
Rajan Katoch, Sunil Kumar Singh and Neelam Thakur

2.1 Introduction 83

2.2 Improvement of Food Nutrition 84

2.3 Improvement of Nutritional Value Through Crop Improvement 85

2.4 Identification of Genes With the Potential to Improve the Nutritional Quality 86

2.5 Genetic Engineering for the Introduction of Nutritionally Potential Genes 90

2.6 Nutritional Improvement Through Recent Biotechnological Advances 92

2.7 Production of Health Care Products 94

2.7.1 The Development of Oral Vaccines in Plant System 95

2.7.2 Advantages of Plant System in the Development of Oral Vaccines 96

2.7.3 Edible Vaccine against Hepatitis B Virus 98

2.8 Major Biotechnological Advances in Nutritional Improvement of Plants 99

2.9 Conclusion 100

References 100

3 Nutrient Biofortification of Staple Food Crops: Technologies, Products and Prospects 113
Chavali Kameswara Rao and Seetharam Annadana

3.1 Introduction 113

3.2 The Concepts of Nutrition and Malnutrition 114

3.2.1 Nutrition, Macronutrients, Micronutrients and Balanced Diets 114

3.2.2 Hunger, Nutritional Security, Undernutrition and Malnutrition 116

3.2.3 The Metabolic Syndrome 116

3.3 Strategies to Enhance Nutrient Intake and Nutrient Content of Plant Foods 118

3.3.1 Interventions to Enhance Nutrient Intake 118

3.3.2 Technologies for Biofortification 119

3.3.3 Common Genetic Engineering Technologies 120

3.3.4 Alternative Genetic Engineering Technologies 122

3.3.5 Recent Genetic Engineering Technologies 123

3.3.6 Moral and Ethical Arguments Against Genetic Engineering Technologies 124

3.4 Quantitative and Qualitative Modification of Dietary Carbohydrates 125

3.4.1 The Carbohydrates 125

3.4.2 Modifying Levels of Components of Starch 128

3.4.3 Engineering Levels of Fructans 129

3.4.4 Quantitative and Qualitative Enhancement Dietary Fibre 130

3.5 Quantitative and Qualitative Enhancement of Proteins and Amino Acids 131

3.5.1 The Proteins and Amino Acids 131

3.5.2 Enhancement of Total Protein 132

3.5.3 Enhancement of Levels of Lysine 132

3.5.4 Enhancement of Levels of Methionine 133

3.5.5 Simultaneous Enhancement of levels Several Amino Acids 133

3.5.6 Artificial Storage Protein 133

3.5.7 Alternate Interventions 134

3.5.8 Non]Proteinogenic Amino Acids 135

3.6 Quantitative and Qualitative Enhancement of Fatty Acids in Oil Seed Crops 136

3.6.1 Lipids, Fats and Oils 136

3.6.2 Cholesterol 136

3.6.3 Characterisation of Fatty Acids, Dietary Fats and Oils 136

3.6.4 Quantitative and Qualitative Improvement of Oil Seed Crops 137

3.6.5 The New Shift in Fat Paradigm and Its Implications 140

3.7 Enhancement of Levels of Vitamins 141

3.7.1 The Vitamins 141

3.7.2 Retinoids (Vitamin A) 142

3.7.3 Folate (Vitamin B9) 145

3.7.4 Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) 146

3.7.5 Tocopherols (Vitamin E) 147

3.7.6 Multi]vitamin Corn 148

3.8 Enhancement of Levels of Mineral Elements 148

3.8.1 Role of Mineral Elements in Human Health 148

3.8.2 Iron (Fe) 150

3.8.3 Zinc (Zn) 152

3.8.4 Calcium (Ca) 154

3.8.5 Selenium (Se) 155

3.8.6 Iodine (I) 156

3.8.7 Fluoride (Fl) 157

3.9 Enhancement of Antioxidants 157

3.9.1 The Antioxidants 157

3.9.2 Lycopene 158

3.9.3 Flavonoids 159

3.9.4 Carotenoids 159

3.9.5 Other Antioxidants 160

3.9.6 Thermal Stability of Antioxidants 160

3.10 Mitigation of Levels of Antinutritional Factors 160

3.10.1 The Antinutritional Factors 160

3.10.2 Phytate 160

3.10.3 Inhibitors of Digestive Enzymes 162

3.10.4 Reducing Levels of Allergens 162

3.10.5 Other Significant Antinutritional Factors 163

3.11 Conclusions and Recommendations 163

Acknowledgement 167

References 167

4 Applications of RNA-Interference and Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) for Nutritional Genomics in Crop Plants 185
Subodh Kumar Sinha and Basavaprabhu L. Patil

4.1 Introduction 185

4.2 RNA Interference 186

4.2.1 RNAi in Modification of Primary Metabolism 186

4.2.2 RNAi for Modification of Secondary Metabolism 188

4.3 Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) for Biofortification 192

4.4 Conclusions 195

References 196

5 Strategies for Enhancing Phytonutrient Content in Plant-Based Foods 203
Carla S. Santos, Noureddine Benkeblia and Marta W. Vasconcelos

5.1 Introduction 203

5.2 What are Phytonutrients? 204

5.3 Which Plant-Based Foods are the Best Known Sources of Phytonutrients? 205

5.4 How Can We Enhance Phytonutrients? 207

5.4.1 Conventional Breeding 207

5.4.2 Molecular Breeding 208

5.4.3 Metabolic Engineering and Genetic Modification 208

5.5 Phenotyping for Phytonutrients at Different Levels 210

5.5.1 Low Throughput Techniques 210

5.5.2 High]Throughput Techniques 213

5.6 The Future Ahead/Concluding Remarks 216

Acknowledgements 217

References 217

6 The Use of Genetic Engineering to Improve the Nutritional Profile of Traditional Plant Foods 233
Marta R.M. Lima, Carla S. Santos and Marta W. Vasconcelos

6.1 Introduction 233

6.1.1 Nutrients in Plant Foods 233

6.1.2 Consequences of Malnutrition 235

6.1.3 Strategies to Overcome Malnutrition 235

6.2 What Are Genetically Engineered Crops? 236

6.2.1 Plant Genetic Transformation Technologies 236

6.2.2 Traditional Foods with Enhanced Nutritional Profiles: Case Studies 238

6.3 GM Plant Foods Under Approval for Commercial Utilisation 245

6.4 Socioeconomic Impact and Safety of GM Foods 247

Acknowledgements 248

References 248

7 Carotenoids: Biotechnological Improvements for Human Health and Sustainable Development 259
George G. Khachatourians

7.1 Introduction 259

7.2 Occurrence 260

7.3 Discovery and Early History 260

7.4 Carotenoids Use in Human Foods and Biotechnology 262

7.5 Use of Carotenoids in Animal Feed 264

7.6 Global Market Situation and Sustainability 264

7.7 Carotenoid Biosynthesis and Function in Plants 266

7.8 Conclusion and Perspectives 268

References 268

8 Progress in Enrichment and Metabolic Profiling of Diverse Carotenoids in Tropical Fruits: Importance of Hyphenated Techniques 271
Bangalore Prabhashankar Arathi, Poorigali Raghavendra]Rao Sowmya, Kariyappa Vijay, Vallikannan Baskaran and Rangaswamy Lakshminarayana

8.1 Introduction 271

8.2 Trends in Biosynthesis of Carotenoids and their Profiling in Plants and Tropical Fruits 274

8.3 Biotechnological Approaches to Enrich Carotenoids in Tropical Fruits 281

8.3.1 Conventional Approaches to Enrich Carotenoids in Tropical Fruits 283

8.3.2 Pre] and Post]Harvest Technology to Improve Carotenoids Contents in Tropical Fruits 283

8.4 Bioaccessibility and Bioavailability of Carotenoids From Fruits and Their Products 285

8.5 Techniques to Characterise Carotenoids from Fruits 291

8.6 Conclusion 294

Acknowledgements 294

References 295

9 Improvement of Carotenoid Accumulation in Tomato Fruit 309
Lihong Liu, Zhiyong Shao, Min Zhang, Tianyu Liu, Haoran Liu, Shuo Li, Yuanyuan Liu and Qiaomei Wang

List of Abbreviations 309

9.1 Introduction 310

9.2 Metabolism of Carotenoid in Tomato 312

9.2.1 Biosynthesis of Carotenoid 312

9.2.2 Catabolism of Carotenoid 315

9.3 The Biosynthetic Capacities of the Plastid 316

9.4 Hormonal Regulatory Network of Carotenoid Metabolism 317

9.4.1 Ethylene 317

9.4.2 Jasmonates 318

9.4.3 Brassinosteroids 319

9.4.4 Abscisic acid 319

9.4.5 Gibberellin 320

9.4.6 Auxin 320

9.5 Environmental Regulation of Carotenoid Metabolism 320

9.5.1 Light 320

9.5.2 Temperature 322

9.5.3 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 322

9.5.4 Post]Harvest Regulation 322

9.6 Bioavailability of Carotenoid 322

9.7 Food Omics 324

Acknowledgements 324

References 327

10 Modern Biotechnologies and Phytonutritional Improvement of Grape and Wine 339
Atanas Atanassov, Teodora Dzhambazova, Ivanka Kamenova, Ivan Tsvetkov, Vasil Georgiev, Ivayla Dincheva, Ilian Badjakov, Dasha Mihaylova, Miroslava Kakalova, Atanas Pavlov and Plamen Mollov

10.1 Grape Genomics 339

10.1.1 Identifying Genes Behind the Main Secondary Metabolites 340

10.1.2 Identifying Disease Resistance Genes in Vitis sp.—a New Level of Grapevine Breeding 341

10.2 Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) and Genomic Selection (GS) of Grapevine 342

10.3 Engineered Resistance to Viruses 343

10.4 Diagnosis of Grapevine Viruses 350

10.4.1 Biological Assays 350

10.4.2 Serological Assays 350

10.4.3 Molecular Assays 351

10.5 Phytonutritional Compounds with Biological Activity in Grape and Wine and Their Target Analyses 353

10.5.1 Biologically Active Substances Found in Grape and Wine 353

10.5.2 LC]MS and GC]MS Based Analysis and Metabolomics 358

10.5.3 NMR–Based Metabolomic Analysis of Grape and Wine 360

10.6 Wine Quality 361

10.6.1 What is the Particular Meaning We Imply to the Term ‘Quality of Wine’? 361

10.6.2 How is the Wine Quality Created? 362

10.7 Grapevine Genetic Resources] Prospects in Management and Sustainable Use 367

10.7.1 European Policy, Regulation and Coordination Initiatives 367

10.7.2 Vitis Grapevine Genebanks, Collections and Databases 368

10.7.3 European Scientific Achievements 369

References 370

11 Phytonutrient Improvements of Sweetpotato 391

Noureddine Benkeblia 391

11.1 Introduction 391

11.2 Nutritional Qualities of Sweetpotato 393

11.3 Phytonutrient Improvements of Sweetpotato 396

10.3.1 Sweetpotato Improvement for β]Carotene 396

10.3.2 Sweetpotato Improvement for Anthocyanins and Phenolics 397

10.3.3 Other Nutrient Improvements 399

11.4 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 399

Acknowledgements 400

References 400

12 Improvement of Glucosinolate in Cruciferous Crops 407
Huiying Miao, Bo Sun, Yanting Zhao, Hongmei Qian, Congxi Cai, Jiaqi Chang, Mingdan Deng, Xin Zhang and Qiaomei Wang

List of Abbreviations 407

12.1 Introduction 408

12.2 Glucosinolate Breakdown 408

12.2.1 Glucosinolate Breakdown Upon Tissue Damage 409

12.2.2 Glucosinolate Breakdown in Living Plant Cell 410

12.2.3 Glucosinolate Hydrolysis in Mammalian 411

12.3 Biological Functions of Glucosinolates and Their Hydrolysis Products 411

12.3.1 Anticarcinogenic Mechanism 411

12.3.2 Other Chemopeventive Effects 413

12.3.3 Adverse Effects 413

12.4 Glucosinolate Biosynthesis 414

12.4.1 Side-Chain Elongation 414

12.4.2 Formation of Core Glucosinolate Structure 414

12.4.3 Secondary Modifications 416

12.4.4 Regulators of Glucosinolate Biosynthetic Pathway 416

12.5 Metabolic Engineering of Glucosinolates in Brassica Crops 418

12.6 Glucosinolate Accumulation under Pre-Harvest and Post-Harvest Handlings 421

12.6.1 Effects of Light on Glucosinolate Accumulation 422

12.6.2 Chemical Regulation of Glucosinolate Accumulation 423

12.6.3 Glucosinolate Changes upon Post-Harvest Handlings 427

12.7 Conclusions and Future Prospects 432

Acknowledgements 433

References 433

13 Development of the Transgenic Rice Accumulating Flavonoids in Seed by Metabolic Engineering 451
Yuko Ogo and Fumio Takaiwa

13.1 Introduction 451

13.2 Production of Flavonoids in Rice Seed by Ectopic Expression of the Biosynthetic Enzymes 454

13.3 Production of Flavonoids in Rice Seed by Ectopic Expression of the Transcription Factors 458

13.4 Characterisation of Flavonoids in Transgenic Rice Seed by LC–MS-based Metabolomics 460

13.5 Future Prospects 461

References 463

14 Nutrient Management for High Efficiency Sweetpotato Production 471
Yong]Chun Zhang, Ji]Dong Wang, Yan]Xi Shi and Dai]Fu Ma

14.1 Patterns of Growth and Development and Nutrient Absorption in Sweetpotato 471

14.1.1 Area under Sweetpotato 471

14.1.2 Growth Characteristics 471

14.1.3 Nutrient Requirements 472

14.1.4 Factors Affecting Nutrient Absorption 472

14.2 Screening of High Efficient of Potassium Uptake and Utilised Genotypes 474

14.2.1 Potassium Deficiency 474

14.2.2 Potassium Use Efficiency and Utilisation Efficiency 476

14.2.3 Screening of High Uptake Efficiency Genotypes 476

14.2.4 Screening of High Use Efficiency Genotypes 478

14.3 Effect of Fertilisers 480

14.3.1 Effect of Nitrogen Application 480

14.3.2 Effect of Phosphorus Application 482

14.3.3 Effect of Potassium Application 482

14.3.4 Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Application on Yield 483

14.4 Balanced Fertiliser Management in Sweetpotato at Sishui, Shandong: A Case Study 483

14.4.1 General Description of Area 483

14.4.2 Major Steps Towards Balanced Application of Fertilisers 485

14.4.3 Establishment and Application of an Expert Consultation System 491

14.5 Application of Fertilisers Through Drip Irrigation (‘Fertigation’) 493

14.5.1 Effect of Supplying Fertilisers Through Drip Irrigation on Sweetpotato 494

14.5.2 Input/output Ratio in Application of Fertilisers Through Drip Irrigation 495

Acknowledgements 495

References 495

Index 499