Skip to main content


Plant Gene Containment

Melvin J. Oliver (Editor), Yi Li (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-35268-7 August 2012 Wiley-Blackwell 224 Pages


Gene Containment provides a comprehensive look at genetically modified organisms and the strategies and implementation of key methods to gene containment. The book is divided into 5 parts: An Introduction that discusses the need for biotechnology and GMOs, Section 1 looks at the need for gene containment, Part II discusses varying strategies for gene containment, section III explores the assessment of gene containment approaches, and section IV covers the steps involved in implementing gene containment. Gene Containment will provide a thorough and up to date look at gene containment research and the needs for implementing new strategies in this arena.

List of Contributors ix

Foreword xi
J. Perry Gustafson and Peter H. Raven

Section 1 Perspectives of Gene Flow 1

Chapter 1 Potential Environmental Impacts of Transgene Flow in Rice with a Particular View on Herbicide Resistance 3
Bao-Rong Lu and Wei Wang

Introduction 3

Transgene Escape and Its Potential Environmental Impacts 4

Herbicide-Resistant Rice 8

Gene Flow from Herbicide-Resistant Rice and Its Potential Impacts 12

Managing Potential Environmental Impacts from Transgene Flow 17

Conclusion 19

Acknowledgments 20

References 20

Chapter 2 Assessment and Detection of Gene Flow 27
Wei Wei, Charles Kwit, Reginald J. Millwood, Hong S. Moon, and C. Neal Stewart Jr.

Importance of Assessment and Detection of Gene Flow 27

Detection Methodologies 29

Applications in Assessment of Gene Flow 35

Perspectives 36

Acknowledgments 37

References 37

Chapter 3 Bt Resistance Monitoring in European Corn Borers and Western Corn Rootworms 43
Blair D. Siegfried and Terence Spencer

Introduction 43

Resistance Monitoring 44

Bioassay Methods and Baseline Susceptibility 47

Recent Developments 49

Conclusions 51

Acknowledgments 52

References 52

Chapter 4 Commercialization of GMOs: the Company Perspective on Risks and Containment 57
Kater Hake

Commercialization of Traits Derived from Plant Biotechnology (GMOs and Alien Chromosome Introgression) 57

Gene Containment During the Commercial Utilization of Crops Derived from Biotechnology 60

Gene Containment During Research, Development, and Seed Production 62

Stewardship and Gene Containment 63

References 65

Section 2 Strategies for Gene Containment 67

Chapter 5 Trait Control (Gene Switch Technology) 69
M. Isabel Ordiz, Jaemo Yang, and Roger N. Beachy

Components of Gene Switch Systems 69

Application of Gene Switch Technologies 75

Future Perspectives 79

References 80

Chapter 6 Male Sterility and Hybrid Plant Systems for Gene Confinement 85
Albert P. Kausch, Joel Hague, Adam Deresienski, Michael Tilelli, and Kimberly Nelson

Introduction 85

Cytoplasmic Male Sterility 86

Transgenic Nuclear Male Sterility 87

Transgenic Nuclear Male Sterility for Gene Confinement 89

Male Sterility for Recovery of Wide Crosses with Gene Confinement 90

Hybrid Plant Systems 92

Seed-Based Hybrid Plant Systems 92

Gene-Deletor System 92

Male and Female Sterile Lines 94

Total Sterility 95

Stable Knockout Mutations 96

References 96

Chapter 7 Gene-Deletor Technology and Its Potential Applications in Addressing Gene Flow and Food Safety Concerns over Transgenic Plants 101
Yi Li, Hui Duan, Yongqin Chen, and Richard McAvoy

Introduction 101

The Principle of Gene-Deletor Technology and Supporting Experimental Data 102

Characteristics and Requirements of Gene-Deletor Technology 105

Potential Applications of Gene-Deletor Technology 107

Conclusions and Perspectives 109

Acknowledgments 110

References 110

Chapter 8 Seed-Based Gene Containment Strategies 113
Melvin J. Oliver and Kater Hake

Seedless Crops 114

Seed-Based Containment 115

GeneSafe (Technology Protection System (TPS)) Technology 117

Expression Cascades for Gene Containment 120

References 123

Chapter 9 Transgenic Mitigation of Transgene Dispersal by Pollen and Seed 125
Jonathan Gressel and Hani Al-Ahmad

Introduction—Containers Leak 125

Mitigation—The Concept of Conferring a Selective Disadvantage Outside of Cultivation 128

Evidence That TM Mitigates Transgene Establishment 133

Tailoring Mitigator Genes to Crops and Cropping Situation 137

Concluding Remarks 142

References 142

Chapter 10 Tapping RNA Silencing for Transgene Containment through the Engineering of Sterility in Plants 147
Zongrang Liu and Stacy D. Singer

Introduction 147

References 166

Chapter 11 Control of Cleistogamy and Seed Dormancy for Biological Gene Containment in Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.) 175
Sabine Gruber and Alexandra H¨usken

Introduction 175

Pathways of Gene Flow in Oilseed Rape 176

Managing Gene Flow in Oilseed Rape 184

Combining Biological Measures Package for Gene Containment 191

Conclusion 192

Acknowledgments 192

References 192

Index 199

A color plate section appears between pages 114 and 115

  • Comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the field of gene containment
  • Chapters contributed by leading, international experts in the field
  • Provides valuable information on assessing and implementing gene containment strategies