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Plastics Waste Management: Processing and Disposal, 2nd Edition

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Plastics Waste Management: Processing and Disposal, 2nd Edition

Muralisrinivasan Natamai Subramanian

ISBN: 978-1-119-55618-3 September 2019 250 Pages

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Description

The book provides clear explanations for newcomers to the subject as well as contemporary details and theory for the experienced user in plastics waste management.

It is seldom that a day goes by without another story or photo regarding the problem of plastics waste in the oceans or landfills. While important efforts are being made to clear up the waste, this book looks at the underlying causes and focuses on plastics waste management. Plastics manufacturers have been slow to recognize their environmental impact compared with more directly polluting industries. However, the environmental pressures concerning plastics have forced the industry to examine their own recycling operations and implement plastics waste management.

Plastics Waste Management realizes two ideals: That all plastics should be able to persist for as long as plastics are required, and that all plastics are recycled in a uniform manner regardless of the length of time for which it persists. The book examines plastics waste management and systems for the environment, as well the management approaches and techniques which are appropriate for managing the environment. It serves as an excellent and thoughtful plastics waste management handbook.

This groundbreaking book:

  • Identifies deficiencies in plastics waste management
  • Extrapolates from experiences to draw some conclusions about plastics waste for persistence
  • Describes methods how the waste related processing techniques should be used in recycling
  • Shows how the consumer and industry can assess the performance of plastics waste management
  • Explains waste utilization by recycling techniques as well as waste reduction
  • Life cycle assessment as an important technique for recycling of persistent plastics waste.

Preface xiii

1 Introduction 1

References 4

2 Plastics and Additives 7

2.1 Polymers 7

2.2 Plastics 8

2.3 Plastics Raw Material 9

2.4 Thermoplastics 9

2.4.1 Polyolefin 10

2.4.1.1 Polyethylene 11

2.4.1.2 Polypropylene 12

2.4.1.3 Polystyrene 14

2.4.1.4 Polyvinyl Chloride 14

2.4.2 Polyester 16

2.4.3 Polycarbonate 17

2.4.4 Polyamide 18

2.4.5 Biodegradable Plastics 18

2.5 Thermosets 19

2.5.1 Phenol-formaldehyde 20

2.5.2 Unsaturated Polyester 20

2.6 Additives 20

2.6.1 Antioxidants 22

2.6.2 Slip Additives 22

2.6.3 Ultraviolet Stabilizers 23

2.6.4 Heat Stabilizers 23

2.6.5 Plasticizers 24

2.6.6 Lubricants 25

2.6.7 Flame Retardants 25

2.6.8 Mold Release Agents 26

2.6.9 Nucleating Agents 28

2.6.10 Fillers 29

2.7 Plastics – Applications 29

2.8 Remarks 30

References 30

3 Plastics and Environment 35

3.1 Plastics and Conventional Materials – Comparison 35

3.2 Effects of Plastics Products and Environment 37

3.3 Landsite Effects 37

3.4 Chemical Environment 37

3.5 Marine Environment 38

3.6 Packaging Materials 40

3.7 Agricultural Fields 40

3.8 Waste Accumulation 41

3.9 Degradation of Plastics 41

3.9.1 Process Degradation 41

3.9.2 Environmental Degradation 43

3.10 Environmental Burdens 44

3.11 Industrial Ecosystem 45

3.12 Remarks 45

References 45

4 Plastics Processing Technology 49

4.1 Background 49

4.2 Management – Plastics Processing 50

4.3 Plastic Materials – Variations 51

4.4 Technology 52

4.4.1 Injection Molding 54

4.4.2 Blow Molding 56

4.4.3 Extrusion 58

4.4.4 Thermoforming 59

4.4.5 Rotational Molding 60

4.4.6 Compression Molding 62

4.5 Productivity and Task 63

4.6 Waste Processing 64

4.7 Reprocess Material in Plastics Processing 65

4.8 Challenges and Opportunities 67

4.9 Remarks 67

References 68

5 Plastics Waste – Consumer and Industry 69

5.1 Background 70

5.2 Plastics Waste 70

5.3 Polyolefin 71

5.4 Polypropylene 72

5.5 Polystyrene 72

5.6 Polyvinylchloride 72

5.7 Bioplastics 73

5.8 Additives and Environment 74

5.8.1 Heat Stabilizers 74

5.8.2 Plasticizers 74

5.8.3 Flame Retardants 75

5.8.4 Compatibilizers 75

5.9 Technological Aspects 76

5.10 Factors Influencing Plastics Waste 76

5.11 Waste Resources 77

5.11.1 Domestic Waste 77

5.11.2 Packaging Waste 78

5.11.3 E-Waste 79

5.11.4 Automotive Waste 80

5.11.5 Medical Plastics Waste 80

5.11.6 Agriculture Plastics Waste 81

5.11.7 Marine Plastics Waste 81

5.11.8 Mixed or Contaminated Plastics 82

5.12 Plastics Waste Reduction 82

5.13 Advantages of Waste Prevention 84

5.14 Waste Reduction and Performance 85

5.15 Recovery of Plastics 85

5.16 Remarks 86

References 87

6 Plastics Waste Management 91

6.1 Principles 91

6.2 Objective 92

6.3 Requirements 92

 6.4 Management Concept 93

6.5 Waste Collection 93

6.6 Separation and Cleaning 94

6.7 Scientific Thinking 95

6.8 Outcome 95

6.9 Effective Management 95

6.10 Dynamic Thinking 96

6.11 Multi-Phase Approach 97

6.12 Significance 97

6.13 Progressive Management Characteristics 98

6.14 Risks in Plastics Waste Management 99

6.15 Factors – Affect, Suffer, and Influence 99

6.16 Operational Problems 100

6.17 Sustainability and Symbolic Management 100

6.18 Environmental Conservation 101

6.19 Decision-Making Process 101

6.20 Integrated Plastics Waste Management 102

6.21 Assignments 103

6.22 Advantages 104

6.23 Shortcomings 105

References 106

7 Recycling Technology 109

7.1 Man-Made Material – Plastics 110

7.2 Substantial Prerequisite 110

7.3 Philosophy 111

7.4 Purpose of Recycling Technology 112

7.5 Fortune of Plastics Material 113

7.6 Methods of Recycling 113

7.7 Plastics Waste – Stream 115

7.8 Mixed Plastics Waste – Separation 117

7.9 Origination of Plastics Waste 118

7.10 Problems of Recycling and Controls 119

7.10.1 Problems 119

7.10.2 Controls 120

7.11 Physical Characterization and Identification 120

7.12 Recycling – A Resource 121

7.13 Recycling Technology 122

 7.14 Primary Recycling 123

7.14.1 Reprocessing Essentials 124

7.15 Mechanical Recycling 124

7.15.1 Limitations 126

7.15.2 Processing Problems 126

7.16 Chemical Recycling 127

7.17 Energy Recovery 130

7.18 Pyrolysis 130

7.19 Types of Reactors and Process Design 134

7.19.1 Batch and Semi-Batch Reactor 134

7.19.2 Fluidized Bed Reactor 135

7.19.3 Conical Spouted Bed Reactor 136

7.19.4 Two-Stage Pyrolysis System 136

7.19.5 Microwave-Assisted Pyrolysis (MAP) 137

7.19.6 Pyrolysis in Supercritical Water (SCW) 138

7.19.7 Fluid Catalytic Cracking 138

7.20 Thermal Co-Processing 139

7.20.1 Advantages 140

7.21 Gasification 140

7.22 Plastics Waste and Recycling 141

7.22.1 Polyolefin 141

7.22.2 Polyvinyl Chloride 142

7.22.3 Polyethylene Terephthalate 142

7.23 Environmental Burdens 144

7.23.1 Incineration – Open Air 144

7.23.2 Plastics Waste in Concrete 145

7.23.3 Plastics Waste in Tar for Road Laying 145

7.24 Plastics Waste as Blends and Composites 146

7.25 Remarks 147

References 147

8 Economy and Recycle Market 155

8.1 Economical Background 155

8.2 Growth Trajectory 156

8.3 Value of Plastics Waste 156

8.4 Economic Issues 157

8.5 Market Dynamics and Uncertainty 158

8.6 Fiscal Waste 159

8.7 Waste to Value 160

8.8 Industrial Ecology 161

8.9 Economic Advantages 163

8.10 Marketing Strategy 164

8.11 Modern Marketing Philosophy 165

8.12 Recycled Plastics Market 165

8.13 Industrial Marketing 167

8.14 Product Development and Marketing 168

8.15 Recycled Plastic Products and Consumer Market 169

8.16 Remarks 170

References 171

9 Life Cycle Assessment 173

9.1 LCA and Plastics Waste 173

Background 174

9.2 Life Cycle Assessment – A Tool to Assess Waste 175

9.3 Scientific Engineering 177

9.4 Purpose 177

9.5 Harmonization of LCA Me thod 178

9.6 Methodology 178

9.7 LCA Initiation 179

9.8 LCA in Plastics Waste 180

9.9 Advantages of LCA 181

9.10 Shortcomings of LCA 181

9.11 Environment Waste Auditi ng 182

9.12 Waste Prevention 183

9.13 Remarks 184

References 184

10 Case Studies 189

10.1 Waste Dump and Health Hazards 189

10.2 Utilization of Plastics Was te 190

10.2.1 Europe 191

10.2.2 India 191

10.2.3 Japan 192

10.2.4 France 193

10.2.5 Other Countries 194

10.3 Use of Case Studies 195

10.4 Property Value 196

10.5 Case Study 1: Plastics Waste from the Electric and Electronic Field 196

10.5.1 Concept 196

10.5.2 Objective 197

10.5.3 Methodology 197

10.5.4 Experimental Method 198

10.5.5 Results 200

10.5.6 Conclusion 200

10.6 Case Study 2: Plastics Waste from the Automobile Industry 200

10.6.1 Background 200

10.6.2 Design 201

10.6.3 Disposal and Recovery 201

10.6.3.1 Recycling of Bumpers 201

10.6.4 Inference 201

10.7 Pros and Cons 203

10.7.1 Positive Thinking 203

10.7.2 Negative Effects 203

10.8 Research and Case Study 204

10.9 Remarks 204

References 205

11 Present Trends 207

11.1 Economic Issues 207

11.2 Industry and Society 208

11.3 Landfilling 208

11.4 Effect of Single-Use Plastic Products 209

11.5 Effect on Food Packaging 209

11.6 Recycling Status 210

11.7 Present Research and Shortcomings 210

11.8 Population Growth and Waste 211

11.9 Remarks 212

References 212

12 Future Trends 215

12.1 Present Problems 215

12.2 Incineration in Open Air 216

12.3 Environmental Advantages 217

12.4 Plastics Waste – Challenge 217

12.5 Environmental and Social Problems – Prevention 218

12.6 Reasons – Waste Accumulation 219

12.7 Ecological Issues 220

12.8 Facts about Bioplastics 220

12.9 Future Requirements 221

12.10 Remarks 222

References 223

Index 225