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Point Defects in Minerals

Point Defects in Minerals

Robert N. Schock (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66407-0

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

232 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 31.

This volume grew from a Chapman Conference held at Fallen Leaf Lake, California, September 5–9, 1982, on the topic “Point Defects in Minerals.” The aim of this conference was to bring together a variety of experts within the geosciences and those disciplines (primarily solid-state physics and chemistry and materials science) that have traditionally studied the role of point defects in solids. Defects exist in all crystals at temperatures above absolute zero and arise from the tendency of crystal structures to disorder with increasing temperature or from chemical substitution. In the absence of outside forces, the most common form of defect is one in which an atom moves from its position in the perfectly symmetric crystal to some other position not normally occupied by this atom, or perhaps any atom. Such defects are termed point defects and they are ubiquitous, although at temperatures below melting their concentration rarely exceeds several percent of the total number of atoms. Nevertheless, point defects may either control or actively participate in many physical and chemical processes in minerals, processes which in turn are important to the formation and evolution of the earth. The need to solve problems posed by recent advances in the geosciences (e.g., the development of the concept of plate tectonics) requires the extension of present concepts in point defect theory, worked out on relatively simple systems, to materials far more complex, such as the silicate minerals found in the earth.

PREFACE  vii

DEFECT THEORY AND STRUCTURES

POINT DEFECTS IN SOLIDS: PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY, AND THERMODYNAMICS
F. A. Kroger  1

POINT DEFECTS IN CRYSTALS: A QUANTUM CHEMICAL METHODOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
A. B. Anderson 18

COMPUTER MODELLING OF MINERALS
C. R. A. Catlow and S. C. Parker  26

 THEORY OF THE SPECIFIC HEAT AND VISCOSITY OF LIQUID Si02 AND BeF2
S. A. Brawer  36

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN CERAMICS: TOWARD IMPROVED DEFECT INTERPRETATION
H. L. Tuller  47

ELECTRICAL STUDIES OF TRANSITION METAL CATION DISTRIBUTION IN SPINELS
T. O. Mason  69

HIGH PRESSURE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY IN NATURALLY OCCURRING SILICATE LIQUIDS
J. A. Tyburczy and H. S. Waff  78

POINT DEFECTS AND THE MECHANISMS OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN OLIVINE
R. N. Schock and A. G. Duba  88

DIFFUSION

A TECHNIQUE FOR OBSERVING OXYGEN DIFFUSION ALONG GRAIN BOUNDARY REGIONS IN
SYNTHETIC FORSTERITE
R. H. Condit, H. C. Weed, and A. J. Piwinskii 97

AN APPROACH TO ANALYZING DIFFUSION IN OLIVINE
R. H. Condit 106

TRACE ELEMENT DIFFUSION IN OLIVINE: MECHANISM AND A POSSIBLE IMPLICATION
TO NATURAL SILICATE SYSTEMS
M. Morioka , K. Suzuki, and H. Nagasawa 116

EXTENDED DEFECTS AND VACANCY NON-STOICHIOMETRY IN ROCK-FORMING MINERALS
D. R. Veblen 122

DEFORMATION

DIFFUSIONAL CREEP PHENOMENA IN POLYCRYSTALLINE OXIDES
R. S. Gordon 132

WATER-RELATED DIFFUSION AND DEFORMATION EFFECTS IN QUARTZ AT PRESSURES OF 1500 AND 300 MPA
s. J. Mackwell and M. S. Paterson 141

THE HYDROLYTIC WEAKENING EFFECT IN QUARTZ
B. E. Hobbs 151

EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE FOR THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT UPON THE CREEP RATE OF OLIVINE
D. L. Ricoult and D. L. Kohlstedt 111

INTERACTION OF SLIP SYSTEMS IN OLIVINE
W. B. Durham, D. L. Ricoult, and D. L. Kohlstedt 185

EXPERIMENTAL DIFFUSIONAL CRACK HEALING IN OLIVINE
B. J. Wanamaker and B. Evans 194

PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS

DEFECT MECHANISMS FOR THE SOLID STATE REDUCTION OF OLIVINE
J. N. Boland and A. Duba  211

COUPLED EXSOLUTION OF FLUID AND SPINEL FROM OLIVINE: EVIDENCE FOR 0- m
THE MANTLE?
H. W. Green II   226