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Polymer Composites with Carbonaceous Nanofillers: Properties and Applications

Polymer Composites with Carbonaceous Nanofillers: Properties and Applications

Sie Chin Tjong

ISBN: 978-3-527-64872-6

Nov 2012

404 pages

Description

Written by an expert in the field of nanomaterials, composites, and polymers, this book provides up-to-date information on recent advances in various aspects of polymer composites reinforced by carbonaceous nanofillers, including their fabrication and their electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. It also extensively covers applications of these nanocomposites in fuel cells, sensors, electromagnetic interference shielding, human implants and scaffolds.

Preface XI

Abbreviations XIII

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Graphene-Based Nanomaterials 1

1.2 Carbon Nanotubes 10

1.3 Carbon Nanofibers (CNFs) 28

1.4 Physical Properties of Graphene 30

1.5 Properties of Carbon Nanotubes 35

1.6 Properties of Carbon Nanofibers 40

1.7 Current Availability of Carbonaceous Nanomaterials 41

1.8 Multifunctional Composite Materials 41

Nomenclature 46

References 46

2 Preparation of Polymer Nanocomposites 53

2.1 Overview 53

2.2 Dispersion of Nanofillers 54

2.3 Solution Mixing 66

2.4 Melt Mixing 78

2.5 In situ Polymerization 84

2.6 Patent Processes 98

References 98

3 Thermal Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites 103

3.1 Crystallization 103

3.2 Characterization Techniques for Crystallization 104

3.3 Thermal Stability 120

3.4 Thermal Conductivity 127

Nomenclature 139

References 139

4 Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites 143

4.1 Background 143

4.2 General Mechanical Behavior 144

4.3 Fracture Toughness 146

4.4 Strengthening and Toughening Mechanisms 148

4.5 Nanocomposites with Graphene Fillers 153

4.6 Nanocomposites with EG and GNP Fillers 169

4.7 Nanocomposites with CNT and CNF Fillers 172

4.8 Composites with Hybrid Fillers 186

Nomenclature 189

References 190

5 Electrical Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites 193

5.1 Background 193

5.2 Percolation Concentration 193

5.3 Electrical Conductivity and Permittivity 197

5.4 Current-Voltage Relationship 229

5.5 Positive Temperature Coefficient Effect 234

5.6 Hybrid Nanocomposites 238

References 243

6 Carbonaceous Nanomaterials and Polymer Nanocomposites for Fuel Cell Applications 247

6.1 Overview 247

6.2 Polymer Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell 248

6.3 Conventional Bipolar Plates 249

6.4 Polymer Nanocomposite Bipolar Plates 252

6.5 Electrical Characteristics of Nanocomposite Bipolar Plates 259

6.6 Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposite Bipolar Plates 269

6.7 Electrocatalyst Supports 274

Nomenclature 282

References 282

7 Polymer Nanocomposites for Biomedical Applications 285

7.1 Overview 285

7.2 Bone Implants 286

7.3 Biocompatibility of Carbon Nanotubes 290

7.4 CNT/Polymer Nanocomposites for Load-Bearing Implants 306

7.5 CNT/Polymer Nanocomposite Scaffolds 310

7.6 Nervous System Remedial Applications 320

7.7 Biocompatibility of Graphene Oxide and Its Nanocomposites 323

References 326

8 Polymer Nanocomposites for Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Shielding 331

8.1 Introduction 331

8.2 EMI Shielding Efficiency 332

8.3 Nanocomposites with Graphene Fillers 335

8.4 Nanocomposites with GNPs 335

8.5 Nanocomposites with CNTs and CNFs 338

8.6 Foamed Nanocomposites for EMI Applications 343

Nomenclature 349

References 349

9 Polymer Nanocomposites for Sensor Applications 351

9.1 Introduction 351

9.2 Pressure/Strain Sensors 352

9.3 Gas and Humidity Sensors 359

9.4 Organic Vapor Sensors 361

Nomenclature 377

References 377

Index 381