DescriptionA survey of all facets of the fire performance examination and evaluation of flexible and rigid polyurethane foams in the various fields of building construction, furniture and furnishings, transportation and electric appliances. The basic information concerning the relevance of the different test procedures allows realistic requirements to be set, guaranteeing more safety in the case of fire. The legal requirements are based on laboratory test methods and the book describes their relevance in relation to real fire scenarios.
A must-have reference for producers, suppliers and manufacturers of polyurethanes.
2 Fire-Protection Problems.
2.1 Definition of the Fire-Performance Criteria.
2.1.1 Formation of Flames.
2.1.2 Course of Fire.
2.1.3 Characteristics of Fire Behavior.
2.2 Essential Fire Scenarios.
2.2.2 Oxidative Decomposition.
2.2.3 Propagation of a Self-sustained Smoldering Fire.
2.2.4 Fully Developed Fire with a Flashover Situation.
3 Research of Causes of Fires.
3.1 General Experience of Fire Statistics.
3.2 Knowledge of Fire Risks.
3.3 Experience with Fire Spread – Fire-Detection Units and Sprinklers.
3.4 The Time of the Fire Initiation as a Classification Criterion.
4 Preventive Fire Protection – National Requirement and Classification Systems.
4.1 Building Section.
4.1.1 United States of America.
4.1.2 European Requirement and Classification Profiles.
4.1.3 Eastern Europe and Far East.
4.1.4 International Standardisation – European Harmonisation.
4.2 Furniture and Furnishing.
4.2.1 American Testing and Evaluation Criteria.
4.2.2 European Test and Evaluation Criteria.
4.2.3 Far East, e.g. Australia.
4.3.1 Road Traffic.
4.3.2 Aviation Sector.
4.3.3 Shipbuilding Sector.
4.3.4 Railway Sector.
4.4 Electrical Engineering.
4.4.2 Proof of the Resistance against Overheated (Hot and Glowing) Wiring.
4.4.3 Thermal Stress with Flames.
4.4.4 Side Effects of a Fire.
5 Material-specific Fire-Performance Characteristics of PUR.
5.1 Polyurethane Production.
5.2 Risk of Ignition in the Production and Storage Area.
5.2.1 PUR Raw Materials – Basic Characteristics.
5.2.2 Laboratory Research Work with the Tewarson Apparatus.
5.2.3 Drum Tests and Supplementary Pool-Fire Experiments.
5.3.1 Material-related Igniting Risks of Polyurethanes.
5.3.2 Material-specific Burning Behavior of Polyurethanes.
6 Use and Interpretation of PUR-Test Results Determined under Enduse Conditions.
6.1 Relevance of Combustion Systems.
6.1.1 Relevance of the Procedures for the Risk of Ignition.
6.1.2 Relevance of the Procedures for the Assessment of the Side Effects of a Fire.
6.2 Relevance of the Evaluation Criteria.
6.2.1 Risk of Ignition.
6.2.2 Burning Dripping.
6.2.3 Relevance of the Criteria for the Evaluation of the Heat Release.
6.2.4 Relevance of the Evaluation Criteria of the Smoke Potential.
6.3 Relevance of the Requirement Profiles.
6.3.1 Relevance of Full-scale Field Trials.
6.3.2 Relevance of the Investigation Results Concerning the Cause of Fires.
6.3.3 Orders Concerning the Risk of Ignition.
6.3.4 Demands Concerning the Heat and Fire-Gas Liberation.